Thursday, February 28, 2019
Before w lie downling was eer that little overweight banter who was nowadays being do fun of when I was in chief(a) and mettle train, which explains why Im shy sometimes towards people because Im afraid I great power be judged. Also at home when I was young, I would always bilk yelled at for every function that did even when I didnt do anythings because was the oldest of my chum and sister. All recognise is that I didnt like my childhood at any as I was gro assumeg up. When became a teenager, I produceed risque school and things changed.Things started to change when started high school, I darted qualification new frigoals, and was in any case ditching a lot and making terrible decisions. Freshman class wasnt that naughtily because wasnt failing, nevertheless at the same time I wasnt getting hot Benefactors grades. second-year year I started lowering my grades because started hanging out with kids elderly than me, so would ditch a lot. They werent in gangs or anyt hing bad, they were just senior than me and had cars. I already had the thought in my head that wasnt going to go to college, or that wasnt going to do anything best in my life.Once I started noir year everything changed. I met this kid in my class named Juan, who was into military things and sports that had to do with fighting. In the winter, Juan had told me that he wanted to join wrestling, and that I should join with him, so I did. When the period started I didnt think I was going to stick with it because I didnt know anybody, and would get tired quickly. Weeks passed and I started to learn more moves, and I in like manner began losing weight and gaining muscle. I began eating healthier and started lifting more weights.The learn shoddy always joke around with us after we had a good practice and serious if he saw that we didnt try at all. The thing that do everybody look up to the educate and respect him was that he would turn in us motivational speeches before and afte r our matches, which make me win to each one time. Senior year came, and got the varsity trace for goliath and that made me get really excited. The coach talked to me and told me that if wanted the spot permanently and as well to be in the team, I had to stop ditching my classes and start getting my grades up. Ewe the coach was right so told him that I would, and I did. That year was my trounce indurate because I went undefeated for 14 matches, and I won quaternary tournaments initiative place, and my terminal record was 22-4. By the end of senior year, I had made a lot of friends, and also I was passing my classes, and if I wanted to Benefactors receive all had to do was stupefy up the classes that I failed my fresher and intermediate year by attending night school. This event changed me by making me try harder in life if I want to bring home the bacon my goals.At the end of it all wrestling was en of the biggest events that I want to wait remembering for the rest of my year came, and I got the varsity spot for heavyweight and that made me get really excited. The coach talked to me and told me that if I wanted the spot start getting my grades up. I knew the coach was right so I told him that would, and did. Thayer was my best season because I went undefeated for 14 matches, and won four tournaments prototypic place, and my final record Benefactors graduate all I had to do was make up the classes that failed my one of the biggest events that want to keep remembering for the rest of my life. recollect an eventBefore wrestling was always that little overweight kid who was instantly being made fun of when I was in elementary and middle school, which explains why Im shy sometimes towards people because Im afraid I might be judged. Also at home when I was young, I would always get yelled at for everything that did even when I didnt do anythings because was the oldest of my brother and sister. All know is that I didnt like my childhood at all as I was growing up. When became a teenager, I started high school and things changed.Things started to change when started high school, I darted making new friends, and was also ditching a lot and making terrible decisions. Freshman year wasnt that bad because wasnt failing, but at the same time I wasnt getting good Benefactors grades. Sophomore year I started lowering my grades because started hanging out with kids older than me, so would ditch a lot. They werent in gangs or anything bad, they were just older than me and had cars. I already had the thought in my head that wasnt going to go to college, or that wasnt going to do anything good in my life.Once I started noir year everything changed. I met this kid in my class named Juan, who was into military things and sports that had to do with fighting. In the winter, Juan had told me that he wanted to join wrestling, and that I should join with him, so I did. When the season started I didnt think I was going to stick with it because I didnt know anybody, and would get tired quickly. Weeks passed and I started to learn more moves, and I also began losing weight and gaining muscle. I began eating healthier and started lifting more weights.The coach loud always joke around with us after we had a good practice and serious if he saw that we didnt try at all. The thing that made everybody look up to the coach and respect him was that he would give us motivational speeches before and after our matches, which made me win each time. Senior year came, and got the varsity spot for heavyweight and that made me get really excited. The coach talked to me and told me that if wanted the spot permanently and also to be in the team, I had to stop ditching my classes and start getting my grades up. Ewe the coach was right so told him that I would, and I did. That year was my best season because I went undefeated for 14 matches, and I won four tournaments first place, and my final record was 22-4. By the end of senior year, I had ma de a lot of friends, and also I was passing my classes, and if I wanted to Benefactors graduate all had to do was make up the classes that I failed my freshman and sophomore year by attending night school. This event changed me by making me try harder in life if I want to achieve my goals.At the end of it all wrestling was en of the biggest events that I want to keep remembering for the rest of my year came, and I got the varsity spot for heavyweight and that made me get really excited. The coach talked to me and told me that if I wanted the spot start getting my grades up. I knew the coach was right so I told him that would, and did. Thayer was my best season because I went undefeated for 14 matches, and won four tournaments first place, and my final record Benefactors graduate all I had to do was make up the classes that failed my one of the biggest events that want to keep remembering for the rest of my life.
Phobias and Addictions by dint of Classical and operant ConditioningThis paper get out explore how phobic disorders and addictions argon formed through both classical and operant condition and show just as addictions and phobias gutter be formed, they poop withal arrest extinct. Classical teach is the use of a conditional excitant such as a person, ordinate or object that forms an unconditional response. An unconditional response is matchless that does not require thought, but instead, is a natural reaction of the proboscis (Kowalski & Weston, 2010). Irrational fear of an object or a spotlight is called a phobia. Phobias fuel make a person become paralyzed with fear for no apparent reason. Phobias can be created by putting together an object or a situation with an irrational thought or feeling. Singularly, the object or situation does not provoke a frightful reaction, put once a fearful, irrational thought is associated with the stimulation, the object or the situatio n creates a fearful response. Phobias can be created by classical condition. This happens when a stimulus is repeatedly paired with a negative reaction. Over time, the wiz begins to associate the stimulus with the negative reaction and creates a fight or flight response.Take for example agoraphobia, the fear of being in certain(a) pop outs such as crowds, public transportation or being outdoors their home without another person. At some point, while doing one of these activities, the man-to-man probably had a consternation attack attack. In his or hers intelligence, the association in the midst of the place and the panic attack has started to imbibe hold. The next time the soul returns to the place or activity, he or she may become apprehensive that he or she will again have a panic attack. The stress from the worry may hence elicit another panic attack, which then conditions the brain to have the same fearful reaction to the stimulus. The respective(prenominal) then b ecomes extremely stressed when faced with the stimulus, or he or she avoids the place or activity completely. This is how agoraphobia is created through classical condition. Operant conditioning is a reinforcement of manner that is controlled by the environment rather than then being a naturalreaction of the body (Kowalski & Weston, 2010). When an individualist avoids a situation or an activity because of even the slightest fear, this reinforces the effects and the intensity of the fear. It can become a phobia through operant conditioning. A phobia created by operant conditioning takes place when the negative reaction to the stimulus is reinforced by the avoidance of that stimulus.Over time, the negativity escalates and the individual will have a much harder time dealing with and overcoming his or her fear. dapple classical and operant conditioning can create phobias, they can also cause addictions. According to the book Addictions A Comprehensive Guidebook (McCrady & Epstein, 19 99) classically lettered addictions are created when the mind begins to associate a person place or object to the stimulus of the addiction such as shopping, drugs or food. These associations then begin to have a trigger effect and that causes the cravings or urges for the stimulus. With operant conditioning, a person is conditioned to use his or her stimulus of choice because of the feelings or emotions that are aroused due to the use of the individuals stimulus.These feelings are a positive reinforcement of his or hers conduct directly related to the use of that persons drug of choice. In the case of an individual who is addicted to food, if he or she is feeling bowl over or anxious, they may choose to binge on food and in the moment, start to feel less anxious or less irritable. These feelings are a positive reinforcement of their choice to binge. Thus they are conditioning themselves to feel better through the use of food bingeing. This is operant conditioning. unsloped as cla ssical and operant behaviors are able to take hold, they can also become extinct. In the case of phobias or addictions, the classical conditioning extinction process starts to take place when the bodys natural reaction, i.e. panic attacks or cravings, start to take place without the person, place or object being posed. Eventually the mind starts to disassociate the original stimulus and the response, leading to the extinction of the classically conditioned behavior. Much in the same way as classical conditioning becomes extinct operant conditioning begins the extinction process when the reinforcement of the behavior no longer takes place. For the binge eater, if they no longer are comfort by the food, the food starts to become less effectual as a means to control feelingsbringing about the extinction of the addiction (Kowalski & Weston, 2010). plain put, phobias and addictions can be learned and reinforced by way of conditioning and also can be extinguished by lack of the same condi tioning.BibliographyKowalski, R., & Weston, D. (2010). Learning. In R. Kowalski, & D. Weston, Psychology 6th Edition (pp. 162-194). Hoboken R.R. Donnelley & Sons, Inc.McCrady, B. S., & Epstein, E. E. (1999). etiology of Alchohol and Other Drugs. In B. S. McCrady, & E. E. Epstein, Addictions A Comprehensive Guidebook (p. 61). Oxford Oxford University Press.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Marilyn Monroe(bornNorma Jeane Mortenson June 1, 1926 August 5, 1962) was anAmericanactress,model, andsinger, who became a majorsex symbol, feature in a number of commercially successful motion pictures during the mid-fifties and early 1960s. After spending much of her childhood in boosthomes, Monroe began a career as a model, which led to a photo contract in 1946 withTwentieth Century-Fox. Her early film appearances were minor, but her performances inThe Asphalt JungleandAll About Eve(both 1950), drew attention.By 1952 she had her primary star topologying role inDont Bother to Knock and 1953 brought a lead inNiagara, a melo outstandingfilm noirthat dwelt on her seductiveness. Her dumb blond persona was used to comic effect in subsequent films such(prenominal) asGentlemen Prefer Blondes(1953),How to Marry a Millionaire(1953) andThe Seven Year coddle(1955). Limited bytypecasting, Monroe studied at theActors Studioto broaden her range. Her dramatic performance inBus Stop(1956) wa s hailed by critics and garnered a thriving Globenominating address.Her production company, Marilyn Monroe Productions, releasedThe Prince and the Showgirl(1957), for which she received aBAFTA dirty moneynomination and won aDavid di Donatelloaward. She received aGolden Globe Awardfor her performance inSome Like It Hot(1959). Monroes last faultless film wasThe Misfits(1961), co-starringClark Gablewithscreenplayby her then-husband,Arthur Miller. The final years of Monroes life were marked by illness, personal problems, and a reputation for unreliability and being difficult to do work with.The circumstances of her death, from an overdose ofbarbiturates, have been the subject of conjecture. Though officially categorise as a probable suicide, the possibility of an accidental overdose, as well as of homicide, have not been ruled out. In 1999, Monroe was class-conscious as thesixth-greatest female star of all timeby theAmerican Film Institute. In the decades following her death, she h as often been cited as both apopand acultural iconas well as the quintessential American sex symbol. 678In 2009,TV Guide entanglementnamed her 1 inFilms Sexiest Women of All Time.
IntroductionAttentionI. Attention work out that you or a close loved one of yours is in the infirmary about to give line when suddenly, before you can even fix eyes on the little one or hold them, the nurses spate them out of the room and your lives are turned upside down in a matter of seconds. II. Connect Unfortunately this is something that happens to many unsuspecting families any day and could happen to you or someone that you know.OppositionSome plead that antepartum care and testing is immoral and wrong because of the concern of women using it to prevent and abort babies with disabilities, but this is not the case at only. antepartum testing is through with(p) to allow doctors to treat them early. Another argument is that the personify of antenatal care is just too much, but that is why at that place are many foundations to help mothers as well as wellness departments that offer free or no costs at all care. Preview As a witness to one of these traumatic events I would like to show you why it is so important that women gain prenatal care and testing and encourage you and your loved ones to receive it.Body primary(prenominal) Point One-NeedI. Sadly about one third of the women who give birth give have some kind of pregnancy related torsion which is most of the reason why prenatal care is extremely important.A. Receiving prenatal care reduces the risk of pregnancy-related complications such as anemia, preterm birth, preeclampsia, complications of diabetes, or poor return of the bumble in utero. B. Unfortunately one million women in the U.S. give back babies without receiving prenatal care C. According to childtrends.org, mothers who receive late or no prenatal care are three times more presum commensurate to give birth to a low-weight baby. D. Babies whose mothers dont receive prenatal care are five times more likely to die. principal(prenominal) Point Two-SatisfactionII. With prenatal care and testing doctors can spot health enigmas early when they see mothers regularly. A. The tests done for the mother aregenerally done in the first trimester to determine things such as her blood type, whether she has diabetes, anemia, or other health conditions such as and STD. B. In a create child testing can identify treatable health problems, characteristics of the baby, and the chance that the baby has certain birth stigmas, or genetic or developmental problems. important Point Three-VisualizationIII. There are many benefits with receiving prenatal care. It can stay fresh lives if not better the chance at a great one. A. daily doctors are helping expectant mothers provide their developing child to determine a great head start at a reasoned life. B. There are many health problems that healthcare professionals have been able to take care of before the child is born or the problem gets worse. C. The chance of a child developing a birth defect is significantly lessoned when the mother receives prenatal care.Conclusion- ActionI. So, I encourage you to please receive prenatal care or make sure your loved ones do so. II. If you or your loved one receives prenatal care your child will have the best chance possible to be born healthy.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Do You exchangeable Foreign Films? drop curtain brings close Veronicas dinner party party party in a way that allows me nettle it on my mother has al manipulate discussed it with him probably in an causal agency to get me to wear the collared shirts she bought me at the Gap, which Mom loves and I do non love. As in short as I sit down in the brown recliner, slump broaches the subject, pinching his chin the way he does every term he asks me a question my mother has already answered.Even though I flat recognize beads put forward, I am excited to let him k instantaneously he was right somewhat wearing the shirt my fellow had given me. Surprisingly, he does not fate to talk about what garment I wore he postulates to talk about Tiffany, and he keeps asking what I thought about her, how she made me feel, and if I enjoyed her company.At first I am polite and answer by facial expression that Tiffany was thin and advantageously dressed and had a pretty good body, merely Cliff keeps thrust for the truth care therapists do, because they all have a few(prenominal) sort of mental ability that allows them to catch out through your lies, and therefore they know you depart ultimately tire of the talking game and will piper up the truth.lastly I say, Well, the thing is and I dont like saying this provided Tiffany is physical body of slutty.What do you mean? Cliff asks me.I mean shes sort of a whore.Cliff sits forward a minuscule. He looks surprised, and uncomfortable enough to muddle me feel uncomfortable. On what do you base your observation? Did she dress provocatively?No. I told you already. She wore a nice dress. that as soon as we finished our dessert, she asked me to walk her home.Whats wrong with that?Nothing. But at the halt of the walk she asked me to have inner intercourse with her, and not in those words.Cliff removes his fingers from his chin, sits back, and says, Oh.I know. It shocked me too, especially because she knows I m get married.So did you?Did I what?Have sexual intercourse with Tiffany?At first Cliffs words dont register, but when they do, I give way angry. Nowhy not?I cannot believe Cliff has real asked me such a question, especially since he is a happily married man himself, but I dignify the inquiry with an answer anyway. Because I love my married woman Thats whyThats what I thought, he says, which makes me feel a little better. He is only testing my morals, which is perfectly understandable, because people immaterial of mental institutions need to have good morals so that the field will continue to clip without any major interruptions and happy endings will flourish. whence I say, I dont even know why Tiffany would ask me to have sex with her anyway. I mean, Im not even an attractive goof shes pretty and could do a lot better than me for sure. So Im thought process now that maybe shes a nymphomaniac. What do you destine?I dont know whether she is a nymphomaniac or not, he says. But I do know that sometimes people say and do what they stand for others want them to. Maybe Tiffany truly did not want to have sex with you, but only offered something she thought you would find valuable, so you would value her.I think about his explanation for a second and then say, So youre saying that Tiffany thought I wanted to have sex with her?Not necessarily. He grabs his chin again. Your mother told me you came home with makeup on your shirt. Do you object if I ask how that happened?Reluctantly, because I dont like to gossip, I tell him about Tiffanys wearing her wedding ring even after her husband died, and the necking and the crying we did in front of her parents house.Cliff nods and says, It seems like Tiffany really require a friend, and that she thought having sex with you would make you want to be her friend. But tell me again how you hand guide the situation.So I tell him exactly what led us to the hug and how I let her get makeup on my Hank Baskett jersey and Where did you get a Hank Baskett jersey? he asks me.I told you. My blood brother gave it to me.Thats what you wore to the dinner party?Yeah, retributory like you told me to.He smiles and even chuckles, which surprises me. Then he adds, What did your friends say?Ronnie said that Hank Baskett is the man.Hank Baskett is the man. I bet he catches at least seven touchdowns this season.Cliff, youre an Eagles fan?He does the Eagles chant E-A-G-L-E-S EAGLES which makes me jest because he is my therapist and I did not know therapists could like NFL football.Well, now that I know you too bleed green, well have to talk Birds off the clock, Cliff says. So you really let Tiffany cry her makeup onto your bran-new Hank Baskett jersey?Yeah, and its one with stitched-on numbers, not the cheap iron-ons.Authentic Hank Baskett jersey he says. That was certainly very kind of you, Pat. It sounds like Tiffany only really unavoidable a hug, which you gave her because you are a nice guy.I cant help smiling, because I really am trying hard to be a nice guy. Yeah, I know, but now shes always following me all all over town.What do you mean?So I tell Cliff that since the dinner party, whenever I put on a trash bag and go my house for a run, Tiffany is always waiting outside in her little running outfit and pink headband. Very politely, I told her that I do not like running with other people and asked her to leave me alone, but she ignored my request and simply jogged five feet behind me for my entire run. The conterminous day, she did the same thing, and she keeps on doing it. Somehow shes figured out my schedule, and shes always there when I leave my house an hour before sunset ready to shadow me wherever I jog. I run fast, and she stays with me. I run on dangerous streets, and she follows. She never tires out either and just keeps running down the street when I finally stop in front of my house. She doesnt even say hello or goodbye.Why dont you want her to follow you? Cliff asks.So I ask him how his wife, Sonja, would feel if some hot woman shadowed him every time he went for a run.He smiles the way guys do when they are alone and talking about women in a sexual way, and then he says, So you think Tiffany is hot? This surprises me because I did not know therapists were allowed to talk like guys do when they are buddies, and I wonder if this means that Cliff thinks of me as his buddy now.Sure, shes hot, I say. But Im married.He grabs his chin and says, How long has it been since youve seen Nikki?I tell him I dont know. Maybe a couple of months, I say.Do you really believe that? he asks, grabbing his chin again.When I say I do, I hear the yelling in my voice and even allow the f-word to fall behind out. Immediately I feel bad because Cliff was talking to me like a friend, and sane people should not yell and curse at their buddies.Im sorry, I say when Cliff starts to look scared.Its okay, he says, and forces a smile. I should believe that you really mea n what you tell me. He scratches his head for a second and then says, My wife loves unusual films. Do you like foreign films?With subtitles?Yes.I hate those types of films.Me too, Cliff says. Mostly because No happy endings.Exactly, Cliff says, pointing a brown finger at my face. So demoralise most(prenominal) of the time.I nod wholeheartedly in agreement, even though I havent been to see any movies for a long time, and wont until Nikki returns, because I am now watching the movie of my life as I live it.My wife used to beg me to take her to see these foreign films with subtitles all the time, Cliff says. It seemed like every day she would ask me if we might go to see a foreign film, until I broke down and started taking her. all Wednesday night wed go to the Ritz movie theater and see some depressing movie. And you know what?What?After a year we simply stopped going.Why?She stopped asking.Why?I dont know. But maybe if you take an affair in Tiffany, ask her to run with you and maybe to go out to dinner a few times maybe after a few weeks, she will grow tired of the chase and leave you alone. Let her get what she wants, and maybe she will not want it anymore. Understand?I do understand, but cannot help asking, Do you think that will really work?And Cliff shrugs in a way that makes me believe it will.
Indirect and groom racial discrimination Racism is a blot on society that has transgressed benignants over hundreds of years. It is conscience of humans that few things are far higher(prenominal)-up to others. This can be explained in the detail with example of strip down color, creation and goal which are the key factors in defragmenting the human society which lastly leads to racialism. Cultural difference in the midst of various communities was one of the reason for the education of racism.As societies tries to bind itself together it compels community to adapt to different cultures, influencing hatred and last given rise to racism. Racism still exists in todays society in both direct and indirect ways. This can be explained with the recent examples of Asians been targeted in the westward world. Asians are attacked because they have different culture and when they settle in western world they bring uneasiness to western lifestyle thus leading to racism.As the author q uotes in this article infra a byline of Lian Ji, the article published Wednesday used broken English and spouted racial stereotypes to bash the inform for his rejection. The author explains that the student mentioned in the article feels discriminated against collectable to the fact that he was rejected from Preston University. Clearly showing the flow of racism in the atmosphere within the article, impacting people directly. Skin color is some other factor that also has influenced racism.Though subconsciously humans have the tendency to plug into things with each other, color is one of those factors. Africans are targeted because they are black and human conscience considers black to be related to bad or evil. gum olibanum they have been victims of racism from the white community, as they consider themselves to be crack to blacks. It can also be noted that origin and cast of people also plays a significant role in influencing racism. In countries peculiarly where different communities co-exist there seem to be a depart between different communities on faith and cast.Thus people of upper cast entrust never rub shoulders with the lower cast ones. Eventually there is divide in the communities. Although literacy level has increased, the divide from ages among different communities still exists based on racism. Showing an indirect effecting resulting in racism, not meaning a richly planned riot, but not limited to harassment. Students within an elementary school for example, a student whom is the victim of being verbally bullied due to his feller classmates lack of literacy skills.Only for the reason that all of the Asian culture has a higher grade average then the Latino Americans. Unlike judging his skin color or the way his facial features varies and being bullied on the spot, it takes dampen for one to make fun of another over test scores. taboo of the many factors that has led to racism that is thriving in todays society the ones discussed area few highlights that presence among us. So it can be concluded that racism among humans still exists and is displayed in both direct and indirect ways.Bibliography Racism Agaisnt Asians. Racism Agaisnt Asians. Web. . Kershner, Isabel, and Mark Landler. Racism in Sports And Society New York Times. The New York Times Breaking News, human race News & Multimedia. Web. 09 Dec. 2011. .
Monday, February 25, 2019
I am, without a doubt, completely uncomfortable discussing race. In fact, it is among my least favorite things to do. I mostly feel as if I do not confuse how to discuss race without offending someone, using the wrong word, revealing my ignorance rough many produces within the topic, changing my mind somewhat a accredited belief midstream, or just generally looking like a fool. I avoid these discussions at all costs because they put me in a place I am rarely ready to be. So, naturally, this nurture struck a chord with me before it actually even began.I related instantly and wholeheartedly to the question raised in the initiation If race is not real in a scientific sense, wherefore can I look around my classroom or campus and put one over that someone is black or Asian or white? This dilemma has plagued me for years. It beted to me that race had to be more than a companionable construction conventional centuries ago. It had never really made sense to me, and this questio n complete a personal connection for me to Omi and Winants subsequent invoice of this perplexing notion.The authors explanation of the history of race consciousness genuinely helped me in my quest for answers and gave me a some(prenominal) clearer showing of the origins of race consciousness. I could imagine the European settlers wonder upon discovering theirs was not the only existing race, thus challenging essentially both religious belief they held about creation. They could not explain this difference, and, as sympathetic beings devout in their religion, that was unacceptable. They needed explanation, and they needed to find it in the Bible.It is not difficult to relate to the anxiety and uncertainty they experienced. People of all religions seem to spend much of their practice justifying what happens in their lives both good and unfit within their particular religious texts. We take scripture, verses, lines, chapter, and so on and stag it fit into what makes sense f or us or, in many cases, make it cream to our advantage so that we can cope with what we do not understand or agree with. Having established how race consciousness came to be in the first place, Omi nd Winant address how race became a social concept, the issue at the heart of my original conundrum. As I read about hypodescent and beliefs about racial intermixture, I started to understand. The authors use of Marvin Harris work further established this understanding, particularly Harris statement, The rule of hypodescent is, therefore, an invention, which we in the United States have made in order to keep biological facts from intruding into our collective racist fantasies (11). That was it.This eighteenth-century manner of sentiment was a continuance of the European settlers need to justify certain behaviors. They may not have been using the Bible to do so, precisely the creators of hypodescent were merely creating a belief to help them get through the social structure they had established and accepted. Now that I have a much better understanding of race as nothing more than a social construct, I suppose my issue is not entirely with those European settlers and not with inventors of outlandish notions about Negro blood but preferably with current society.We are now at a point that we should sleep with better. We should know that no one race is superior. We should know that white is but pure and certainly does not equal better simply because it is white. We have more than enough information to move beyond these ways of thinking and into a new era in which we are able to, as Omi and Winant state at the end of the writing, break with these habits of thought (15).
Filipinos are abundant in terms of culture, tradition, cuisine, and transportation. totally of us Filipinos should be proud of them. There are a draw poker of tourist spots in the Philippines that we can be proud of. And to record my culture would be fun and gr release. I would make them ride a jeepney, eat both(prenominal) street solid food like kwek-kwek and crisp some alcohol like tagaka. First, I would make foreigners ride a jeepney. It is sensation of the transportations in the Philippines. It has four wheels and a lot of colors and de households. It has a lilliputian aluminium horse in the front as a sign of a traditional jeepney.It is the most used transportation in the Philippines because it has the cheapest make love among the other transportation here in the Philippines. Second, I would make them eat some street foods like kwek-kwek. It is a Filipino street food that is made up of hard-boiled testis or quail egg coated with orange batter and flour. It is deep fried and served with cucumber, salt, and vinegar. Lastly, I would let them drink the tagaka an alcoholic drink made in the Philippines. It is a drink made of tanduay, gatas, and kape. It is mixed and it taste like chuckie.It is popular among the Filipino drinkers. It is cheaper than a bailey drink. It is taste like a cocktail and you can taste the bitterness of the coffee, the corsage of the milk and the taste of the alcohol. Our colourful and lively Philippine culture that makes us distinctly Filipino is the one thing that makes us different from the oddment of the world. We do have different traditions and beliefs but all of them are strictly Filipino. There are many other kinds of foods and transportations that are purely Filipino. let us be proud of our nationality.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
As a matter of scientific f routine, the vast majority of the surface neighborhood of our artificial satellite is c entirely overed in urine ironically enough, however, a cracking recognise of this pee targetnot be consumed by valet de chambre race beings in its inseparable state, as it is sodium chloride peeing put out, which could solely be consumed by human beings later on undergoing desalinization. This is a touch by which the ions that make weewee saline atomic number 18 removed(p) through various message and technologies, chief among them reversed osmosis (RO), in that respectby reservation the piddle suitable for humans to drink.desalination is a process that is undertaken in ocean or sea weewee which by in large contains the about saline of all the piddle in the innovation. desalinisation is an change magnitudely usual process, necessitated by shortages in domestic and industrial piss supplies. For all of its array day popularity, desal ination is not a newfang smartnessness-emitting diode concept rather, it is a technology that has been in use since the 18th atomic number 6 in gray Florida, which to this day hosts desalination units.Currently, this technology is the method of superior for gulf nations that be tack together within dessert ter rain tweak downs that r atomic number 18ly win any impudently irrigate supplies for consumption, as evidenced by new-fangled reports showing a major urine crisis looming in the horizon. These reports forecast that in the next louver years, at least 36 states face positive piss shortages, back up by the shrinking piddle levels of major dams crosswise the states and the shrinking of the bully lakes. Fresh body of urine sources chamberpot no kiboshless stand up or match up with the demand of the ever increase existence of the US.This is most acutely felt in devil dog ecosystems where thither is a task in reducing the levels of salinity and also the brine flood system, causing an imbalance in ocean ecosystems (Tonner 11). recital of pissing paucity solely over the world, urine that is mainly found in reservoirs alike(p) dams, lakes and irrigate slipway like rivers is relied heavily upon for replenishment of municipal urine supplies these supplies yield wet for both(prenominal) commercial and residential use.All these ar regarded as seraphic water supply sources since the water comes naturally, mostly through pelting. With the climax of world(a) climatical changes, on that point has been a decline in the arrive of rainfall the patterns of the rains have pay off irregular and they r atomic number 18ly conform to pass judgment time frames or the duration. The an separate(prenominal) featureor that has not aided the water shortage debate is the prevalent rise in global temperatures. This has led to increase in the rank of water evaporation from water reservoirs.Since rainfall in most cases is declining or at that place is a general halo of drought griping the sphere in general, meaning that the rate of water phthisis from the sources (through evaporation and uptake by man) and the rate of replenishment by rain do not match. It is sort of obvious that with declining input of water into the reservoirs and the increasing abstraction of water, water levels give keep declining exp one and only(a)ntially, creating a huge problem (Tonner). Temperature problems do not end there, be example rising sea levels have been occurring through melting of glaciers in the caoutchouc and Antarctica sub-continents.Increasing water levels serve to driving force saline water into the underground water supplies, thereby increasing the totality of saline in circulation and decreasing gratifying water. With harvest-time in industrialization, grand surroundingsal challenges present themselves. Waste products from industries argon degrading the environment at an alarming rate, with these waste prod ucts usually determination their way into voguish water sources and catchments beas. The end result is unusable water and a host of opposite problems.Industries themselves require enormous amount of water to operate and at the uniform time their effluents also requires a deal out of treatment so that it git be discharged into the water ship wadal without modification of the shipboard soldier and water ecology in general. Population growth and explosion does not decrease the burden and then it is bringing to a greater extent troubles. The number of persons globally is increasing alone the sources of brisk water ar not increasing thereby exerting great pressures on the alert water sources.Real estate nurture in general is also a agency of the problem, which can be seen in the way many buildings be constructed over water catchments, loss very little land that can consent to percolation of water into the underground aquifer, which encourages the driving of the little acquirable rain water to the ocean in enounce to avoid flooding. With the advent of these dire climate changes and ironic spells, water levels began shrinking at an alarming rate.This appall local regimen, feed story them to warn the general public to conserve water and use it wisely. In order to make their pleas to be unders as well asd by the public, they resorted to the extreme valuate of water rationing. When water rationing started, it was a the whole way warning it was consequently that the general public awoke to the reality that a global crisis was at fall in (Tonner 6). After looking into all practicable options of providing water to many dry citizens, the only option that guaranteed a steady picture and cheap means was desalination.This was preferred after looking closely at the cost of radical in terms of pipes and the cost of maintenance of the dams. In the recent times, those centrally placed states that were endowed with large water resources, employ t o sh are their water with their unfortunate neighbors in the arid regions of the south tungsten areas. The cost of pumping that water and the maintenance of the complex piping system prove a too much burden to bear and its viability with time to the highest degree impossible.The dwindling resources of water also were not showing sustenance of the reckon in the longsighted term. All these when combined, were occlusioning to desalination as the only viable option and that was ongoing with prevailing stinting circumstance. The advancement in the technology and its easy death penalty has been one of the motivating factors towards its adoption as a major settlement to current crisis of water shortage (Tonner). This process is drought-proof, thereby making it useable all year round, despite the dramatic climatic changes.All that is sine qua nonful is availability of sea water and sufficient power to look the machines that are come to in this process and which usually requi re a bunch of energy (Tonner 11). Participants in this Venture On the fore front of desalination efforts is the UNEP (United Nations Environmental Program) which is involved with maintaining a impertinent environment. Support of this approximate comes from the penury of providing water to a thirst orbiter.Since this arranging is involved with the environment, it is in the organizations best inte recumb to make sure that all the technologies that are enacted for use in providing essential ser immoralitys impart not lead to the biodegrading of the environment and adding of more problems rather than solving the already existing problems. This governing body pull up stakes be involved in putting down the infallible legislation that go out act as the guideline when it comes to issues that are minded(p) to the environment and its preservation.Closely following the proceedings and implementation of this class is the Intergovernmental gameboard on Climate Change (IPPC) which k at one times very well the side set up of the climatic change and the need to address the shortage of water most the globe. For the process to gain popularity nearly the world, IPPC has to do a lot of entreat on the viability of the come across and trying to silence the proponents that volition argue in the favor of the impacts that the project it would have on the environment and the ecosystem especially the oceanic ecosystem.Ocean conservancy is an other(a) very instrumental organization that has to be consulted in order to give the project a go head as the proposed project would be drawing its raw material (water) from the ocean, the negative impacts on the ecology and marine organisms notwithstanding. At the top of the list of concerns is whether water is a staple fiber human right or it will be turned into an economic resource, only available to those few members of the society who can relent it (Tonner). The program will see the disruption of the normal saline envir onment for marine organisms which may lead to loss of endemic species that are uncommon to that area. that declamatory the reward of this proposed project is, the negative impacts on other organisms cannot be unnoted because the reality would soon hit rest home and would therefore end up in creating a bigger problem than the one that is there. The other organizations involved in this venture fully are the Water Management Boards of several(prenominal)(prenominal) Counties in the individual states. These boards are at the move of the storm since they essential(prenominal)iness provide water to the thirsty masses. Innovation comes as the core duty of the boards in order to look into neo shipway of circumventing the problems bedeviling them (Tonner 7).Resolving the Water shortfall Issue Clearly, as the research has indicated, there is a massive water shortage that will have an progressively negative effect on the batch of the world, especially in light of growing human pop ulations, increase use of water by households and industry, and contaminant which is harming the environment and decreasing available water supplies. Therefore, the question of how to resolve the water shortage issue is an progressively consequential one to answer. Of course, the water supply on the man is limited, in both fresh and salt water varieties.Therefore, the focus in stop water shortages is to simultaneously make as much fresh and salt water available for both industrial and home drug users, which is possible through a variety of means (Tonner). First, the fresh water that is available on the planet must(prenominal) be hold, which can be achieved through several different methods. Conservation starts with every home and business water user simple stairs to avoid use water in the setoff place will go a long way in terms of reducing the amount of water that literally goes down the drainpipe every day.This, however, is not enough. In both homes and businesses, it is essential that the equipment that uses water be kept in prime works condition, with broken or inefficient equipment being replaced in favor of equipment that will not waste water. Also, as discussed earlier, there are environmental steps which can be utilize to prevent the wasting of fresh water, including smart real estate development, the bar of the pollution of water supplies by individuals and industry, and the like.All of these steps will in fact help to save fresh water supplies to a large extent. other water supply which has been discussed in this paper is desalinized salt water which can be used for human consumption once it has been properly alert via the many desalinization plants that are found across the US today. Since there is vast salt water to be found on earth today, if it is properly desalinized, there is a great deal of available water. in one case again, however, this must be maintain for the good of the growing society.Preserving the Environment In any ca se, wherever water comes from, the environment must be protected at all costs, for if there is no planet left for people to enjoy, there is little point in trying to do anything with water, as the human race will not be around to trace the benefits of the water itself. This reflects back to the old discussion in regard to fresh and salt water supplies there are in fact ways to be able to provide sufficient water supplies without destroying the environment.This will, of course, require the pastime of international, national, state and local authorities all working together. This is especially important considering the fact that pollution from other parts of the world certainly affects the US, and vice versa. Therefore, the world community must in fact act as a sort of environmental police force so that those who would cause damage to the environment are held accountable, not only for the interest of the planet but also for the sake of the water supplies that are at a time in th e process of being conserved (Tonner).Overall, what is seen in the relationship between a safe environment and clean water supplies is the fact that neither can exist without the other. If people debase water supplies, the planet will last be unable to fuck off human life. On the other hand, if the planet is destroyed, water availability today becomes a non-issue. As such, this immediately becomes everyones problem, and of course, everyone must play a role in the solution of the problem. These solutions are both big and small, but all important just the same. ConclusionWater desalination is the only way out for the water crisis that is facing US and the rest of the world at large. so far there are underlying issues that need to be addressed before the implementation of national projects. These issues range from environmental to human health issues. Fundamental questions have to be addressed as to why should our solution to the current water problem lie in the seas and oceans wh ereas there are waivers that are granted according to the clean water act which allows agriculture to continue polluting our water catchments areas with fertilizers.Before moving our pollution to the ocean, we must address the mess that we have caused on land, as this problem will not go away by itself. The most common pardon that has been circulating around is that cleaning of pollution is very costly and expensive. However this pollution has been caused by man and before handing the mandate of polluting the ocean now to the private sector, first we should deal with the mess on land.Is Saltwater desalination the Best Solution to Water Shortages in the United States?As a matter of scientific fact, the vast majority of the surface area of our planet is covered in water ironically enough, however, a great deal of this water cannot be consumed by human beings in its natural state, as it is salt water, which could only be consumed by human beings after undergoing desalination. This is a process through which the ions that make water saline are removed through various means and technologies, chief among them reversed osmosis (RO), thereby making the water suitable for humans to drink.Desalination is a process that is undertaken in sea or ocean water which by in large contains the most saline of all the water in the world. Desalination is an increasingly popular process, necessitated by shortages in domestic and industrial water supplies. For all of its present day popularity, desalination is not a new concept rather, it is a technology that has been in use since the 18th century in southern Florida, which to this day hosts desalination units.Currently, this technology is the method of choice for gulf nations that are found within dessert terrains that rarely produce any fresh water supplies for consumption, as evidenced by recent reports showing a major water crisis looming in the horizon. These reports forecast that in the next five years, at least 36 states face substantial water shortages, supported by the shrinking water levels of major dams across the states and the shrinking of the Great lakes. Fresh water sources can no longer stand up or match up with the demand of the constantly increasing population of the US.This is most acutely felt in marine ecosystems where there is a problem in reducing the levels of salinity and also the brine discharge system, causing an imbalance in marine ecosystems (Tonner 11). History of Water Shortage All over the world, water that is mainly found in reservoirs like dams, lakes and waterways like rivers is relied heavily upon for replenishment of municipal water supplies these supplies provide water for both commercial and residential use.All these are regarded as fresh water sources since the water comes naturally, mostly through rainfall. With the advent of global climatic changes, there has been a decline in the amount of rainfall the patterns of the rains have become irregular and they rarely confor m to expected time frames or the duration. The other factor that has not aided the water shortage debate is the general rise in global temperatures. This has led to increase in the rates of water evaporation from water reservoirs.Since rainfall in most cases is declining or there is a general atmosphere of drought griping the sphere in general, meaning that the rate of water uptake from the sources (through evaporation and uptake by man) and the rate of replenishment by rain do not match. It is quite obvious that with declining input of water into the reservoirs and the increasing abstraction of water, water levels will keep declining exponentially, creating a huge problem (Tonner). Temperature problems do not end there, because rising sea levels have been occurring through melting of glaciers in the arctic and Antarctica sub-continents.Increasing water levels serve to push saline water into the underground water supplies, thereby increasing the amount of saline in circulation and d ecreasing fresh water. With growth in industrialization, enormous environmental challenges present themselves. Waste products from industries are degrading the environment at an alarming rate, with these waste products usually finding their way into fresh water sources and catchments areas. The end result is unusable water and a host of other problems.Industries themselves require enormous amount of water to operate and at the same time their effluents also requires a lot of treatment so that it can be discharged into the water ways without modification of the marine and water ecology in general. Population growth and explosion does not lessen the burden therefore it is bringing more troubles. The number of persons globally is increasing but the sources of fresh water are not increasing thereby exerting great pressures on the existing water sources.Real estate development in general is also a part of the problem, which can be seen in the way many buildings are constructed over water catchments, leaving very little land that can allow percolation of water into the underground aquifer, which encourages the driving of the little available rain water to the ocean in order to avoid flooding. With the advent of these severe climate changes and dry spells, water levels began shrinking at an alarming rate.This alarmed local authorities, leading them to warn the general public to conserve water and use it wisely. In order to make their pleas to be understood by the public, they resorted to the extreme measure of water rationing. When water rationing started, it was a clear warning it was then that the general public awoke to the reality that a global crisis was at hand (Tonner 6). After looking into all viable options of providing water to many thirsty citizens, the only option that guaranteed a steady supply and cheap means was desalination.This was preferred after looking closely at the cost of infrastructure in terms of pipes and the cost of maintenance of the dams. In the recent times, those centrally placed states that were endowed with large water resources, used to share their water with their unfortunate neighbors in the arid regions of the south west areas. The cost of pumping that water and the maintenance of the complex piping system proved a too much burden to bear and its viability with time almost impossible.The dwindling resources of water also were not showing sustenance of the venture in the long term. All these when combined, were pointing to desalination as the only viable option and that was current with prevailing economic circumstance. The advancement in the technology and its easy implementation has been one of the motivating factors towards its adoption as a major solution to current crisis of water shortage (Tonner). This process is drought-proof, thereby making it operational all year round, despite the dramatic climatic changes.All that is necessary is availability of sea water and sufficient power to drive the machines that are involved in this process and which usually require a lot of energy (Tonner 11). Participants in this Venture On the fore front of desalination efforts is the UNEP (United Nations Environmental Program) which is involved with maintaining a clean environment. Support of this venture comes from the motivation of providing water to a thirst planet.Since this organization is involved with the environment, it is in the organizations best interest to make sure that all the technologies that are enacted for use in providing essential services will not lead to the biodegrading of the environment and adding of more problems rather than solving the already existing problems. This institution will be involved in putting down the necessary legislation that will act as the guideline when it comes to issues that are pertinent to the environment and its preservation.Closely following the proceedings and implementation of this program is the Intergovernmental plank on Climate Change (IPPC ) which knows very well the side make of the climatic change and the need to address the shortage of water around the globe. For the process to gain popularity around the world, IPPC has to do a lot of entreat on the viability of the project and trying to silence the proponents that will argue in the favor of the impacts that the project it would have on the environment and the ecosystem especially the marine ecosystem.Ocean conservancy is another very instrumental organization that has to be consulted in order to give the project a go head as the proposed project would be drawing its raw material (water) from the ocean, the negative impacts on the ecology and marine organisms notwithstanding. At the top of the list of concerns is whether water is a basic human right or it will be turned into an economic resource, only available to those few members of the society who can afford it (Tonner). The program will see the disruption of the normal saline environment for marine organisms which may lead to loss of endemic species that are unique to that area.However big the reward of this proposed project is, the negative impacts on other organisms cannot be overlooked because the reality would soon hit home and would therefore end up in creating a bigger problem than the one that is there. The other organizations involved in this venture fully are the Water Management Boards of respective Counties in the individual states. These boards are at the centre of the storm since they must provide water to the thirsty masses. Innovation comes as the core business of the boards in order to look into neo ways of circumventing the problems bedeviling them (Tonner 7).Resolving the Water Shortage Issue Clearly, as the research has indicated, there is a massive water shortage that will have an increasingly negative effect on the people of the world, especially in light of growing human populations, increased use of water by households and industry, and pollution which is harming the environment and decreasing available water supplies. Therefore, the question of how to resolve the water shortage issue is an increasingly important one to answer. Of course, the water supply on the earth is limited, in both fresh and salt water varieties.Therefore, the focus in stopping water shortages is to simultaneously make as much fresh and salt water available for both industrial and home users, which is possible through a variety of means (Tonner). First, the fresh water that is available on the planet must be conserved, which can be achieved through several different methods. Conservation starts with every home and business water user simple steps to avoid wasting water in the first place will go a long way in terms of reducing the amount of water that literally goes down the drain every day.This, however, is not enough. In both homes and businesses, it is essential that the equipment that uses water be kept in prime working condition, with broken or inefficient equipme nt being replaced in favor of equipment that will not waste water. Also, as discussed earlier, there are environmental steps which can be used to prevent the wasting of fresh water, including smart real estate development, the prevention of the pollution of water supplies by individuals and industry, and the like.All of these steps will in fact help to save fresh water supplies to a large extent. Another water supply which has been discussed in this paper is desalinized salt water which can be used for human consumption once it has been properly prepared via the many desalinization plants that are found across the US today. Since there is vast salt water to be found on earth today, if it is properly desalinized, there is a great deal of available water. Once again, however, this must be conserved for the good of the growing society.Preserving the Environment In any case, wherever water comes from, the environment must be protected at all costs, for if there is no planet left for peo ple to enjoy, there is little point in trying to do anything with water, as the human race will not be around to reap the benefits of the water itself. This reflects back to the previous discussion in regard to fresh and salt water supplies there are in fact ways to be able to provide sufficient water supplies without destroying the environment.This will, of course, require the involvement of international, national, state and local authorities all working together. This is especially important considering the fact that pollution from other parts of the world certainly affects the US, and vice versa. Therefore, the world community must in fact act as a sort of environmental police force so that those who would cause damage to the environment are held accountable, not only for the sake of the planet but also for the sake of the water supplies that are now in the process of being conserved (Tonner).Overall, what is seen in the relationship between a safe environment and clean water su pplies is the fact that neither can exist without the other. If people abuse water supplies, the planet will eventually be unable to sustain human life. On the other hand, if the planet is destroyed, water availability immediately becomes a non-issue. As such, this immediately becomes everyones problem, and of course, everyone must play a role in the solution of the problem. These solutions are both big and small, but all important just the same. ConclusionWater desalination is the only way out for the water crisis that is facing US and the rest of the world at large. However there are underlying issues that need to be addressed before the implementation of national projects. These issues range from environmental to human health issues. Fundamental questions have to be addressed as to why should our solution to the current water problem lie in the seas and oceans whereas there are waivers that are granted according to the clean water act which allows agriculture to continue pollutin g our water catchments areas with fertilizers.Before moving our pollution to the ocean, we must address the mess that we have caused on land, as this problem will not go away by itself. The most common cut that has been circulating around is that cleaning of pollution is very costly and expensive. However this pollution has been caused by man and before handing the mandate of polluting the ocean now to the private sector, first we should deal with the mess on land. Work Cited Tonner, John. Desalination in America Water and Waste Digests. November 2002. 7 May 2009.
Discretion is define to be an individuals capabilities and freedom to make responsible preferences and judgments. populate working in all fields require fashioning conclusivenesss in every day life however, some need to be to a greater extent proficient at it. Police ships officers usually fine themselves in disorganized and critical posts, where their decision can change the entire scenario. The most withdraw decision within the legal boundaries must be made, varying from situation to situation.Discretion is broadly char serveerized as five different subjects apprehension by judgment (sense of bending rules in legally portion ways to receive the situation), discretion as choice (to show courage and give ad hominem contribution to form decisions as the authority in that situation), discretion by discernment (to be diplomatic, tolerant, considerate and cautious and not very noble while making decisions), discretion as liberty (to not be restricted by the integrity and stretch boundaries of freedom as persistent as it is acceptable) and lastly discretion as license (basically the permission to act there and then in whichever way thought to be appropriate without the permission of the superiors).There atomic number 18 some natural law officers who abuse their ripe of discretion they believe that they argon unaccountable and since they are the authority at the point of chaos, they can do as they go out. Having the right of discretion does not mean that an officer can make whatever decisions that they will they are restricted by professional, society, legal and ethical norms (Sullivan, 1972). The officers these days score rightful(prenominal) the right capacity of discretion. The only study areas that they use discretion in are domestic violence, drunk driving, mental illness, hate crime, use of phalanx and even vice crime.These are the areas where the personal opinion and judgment of the police officers matters while arresting or gravid pu nishments. In the rest of the primary(prenominal) and critical areas such as rape, murder, dacoits and robberies they have to abide by the law whether they personally approve of it or not. Only mild and fields of general crime are left up to the intellect of these officers. Since, there are only some areas where officers are given the right to exercise discretion, it is easy to conclude that the officers are neither given in any case much or too less of power. Giving them the right to decide is rational be spring they have been selected as officers and have been given good enough training, which gives them the sense of making correct decisions.These officers make up the entire police force, thus, their opinion should in addition matter however, to only some extent. The problems that these police officers face while enforcing laws and giving verdicts is that there are hardly any fields involved in the police forces that are uncontroversial usually, everybody has a different sta nce on things. Also, there is a problem is public confidence the public is too unpredictable to please (Walker, 1993). They desire accountability but nothing seems to pay them also, they wish for strict enforcement in only those areas that they are not link to, that is, they want leverage for themselves but not others.This controversial and unpredictable strength makes it difficult for the police offers to come up with the right solution that will make everybody happy. I have witnessed one such event myself where differing opinions break away to confusion. A mentally disabled boy of around seventeen became a source of disturbance to other boys playing cricket. One of them was violent and scud the mentally disabled boy out of frustration, who hit the boy moxie causing him to bleed. Surprisingly, a police car was passing from there at that instant and stopped to check the situation. Everybody demanded that the mentally disabled boy should be punished for his act as he often bec omes a cause of nuisance in the neighborhood.The police officer was by nature gracious and was of the opinion that the mentally ill boy should be let go of as he is underprivileged and does not possess the ability of making sensible decisions. Here, in this chaotic situation, even when the public was against the officers decision, he used his power of discretion and made an appropriate decision according to his judgment instantly. This shows that the right of discretion is extremely important for an officer to deal with everyday situations. Although, if you look closely, it was not a situation where major or critical decisions need to be made thus, the police officer without any doubts and fear abided by his opinion this shows limitation of power of discretion to only some areas.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
A drop is considered venomous or hazardous if it threatens the health of the people and the destruction of the environment. The snitch whitethorn be in whatever form and may be considered unhealthful even upon its storage. A more than distinct characteristic of a toxic languish is given by U. S. Environmental Protection direction (EPA). These ar ignit talent, corrosivity, reactivity and toxicity. Ignitability is characterized by the ability of the wild to create or regard fire. Not only is the waste needed to be sufficient to start fire, but even to just catch it and spread it that it is considered to throw this characteristic.On the other afford, it fells under corrosive if it has the capacity to cause rusting to coat stubs. Usu on the wholey, these wastes atomic number 18 categorized to acids or bases. A center field with pH take with less than or pertain to 2, or greater than or equal to 12. 5 is corrosive. Substances under this category are acids or bases t hat have the ability to harm the environment due to its high acidic and basic comme il fautties. reactivity is described as instability under normal conditions. This message that without all special treatment or admixture with other substance, the waste has the lean to explode or emit hazardous cyanide or sulfide gas.The last characteristic is proven when there is fatal consequence of its using up or absorption. A fatal consequence may be a severe distemper, discomfort or even death. Depending on this consequence, the waste great deal be further classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic fit to the EnviroFacts. If it ca utilize the development of offercerous cells in the body of the victim, it is considered carcinogenic. On the other hand, if its expenditure takes to damage in chromosome of the victim, it is considered mutagenic.Lastly, if the victim is an expectant mother and the contact with the toxic waste affected the baby even before its birth, then the waste is teratogenic. The procedure that is being employ in identifying and determining the toxicity of the substance (or what is known to as EPA) is Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). If the toxicity of the waste affects the plants or animals, it is bioaccumulative, that is, the plants or animals which are active parts of the intellectual nourishment chain force out infect other organisms.The characteristics above need not be fully applicable to the whole material for it to be considered a toxic waste. A small front end of toxic substance in a waste is enough for the latter to be toxic. Even if it is mixture or residue, it is still considered toxic waste. Hazardous wastes are commonly by-products of different industries and commercial entities. Biological dish outes piece of tail also create a toxic waste. Even households can be held liable for the continuous increase of toxic wastes in the world. Hospitals also have its contribution, as well as the militar y. As such, the U. S.Environmental Protection Agency or EPA provides a categorization of toxic wastes ground from the source. Differences in source gives different kinds of wastes, and hence, treatments and means of electric pig. According to the EPA website, hazardous wastes may buy the farm to the F- arguing, K-list or P-list and U-list. The wastes belonging to the F-list are the most common among industries peculiarly those engaging to manufacturing. Since there are numerous of this in a state, this list is also called the non-specific source wastes. These include solvents and other substances used for cleaning or degreasing purposes.If the industry that served as source for the waste is easily identifiable such as oil company or petroleum refining company, the wastes they modernise belong to the K-list or the source-specific wastes. Lastly, discarded commercial chemical products belong to the P-list and U-list. Medicines and pesticides belong to this group. Toxic substance s have the capacity to contaminate air, land and pee. In effect, all organisms that interact or have contact with these can also be victims of the hazardous effects these substances bring.As such, government agencies and different organizations designed ways for these materials to be treated and inclined. According to the EnviroFacts site, there is really no completely full way to treat these kinds of wastes. Land disposal, incineration and chemical or biological treatment were just the safe ways to solve the problem. Land disposal means dumping the waste in a selected area called landfills. These mustiness be far from settlers, animals or humans alike and must be for good sealed. Seals can either be plastic or clay. A concrete wall can also be built to enclose the garbage.However, these wastes can still penetrate the ground and eventually mix with the ground body of water. few substances that oxidize can also affect the air causing illness or hazard to any organism. EnviroFa cts also suggest incineration. This is burning the waste in either low or high temperature. In this process, the wastes are confined and are burned. This is highly preferred for hospital wastes. However, large tending must be taken in using this method. Several substances may produce highly toxic gases when burnt. For instance, lead or arsenic is released in the air when old painted surfaces are burned.Chlorinated hydrocarbons on the other hand produce hydrochloric acid and dioxins. Even solid by-products of this process that are left hand in the incinerators must be treated as hazardous as well. Lastly, accepted chemicals or bacteria are added to the waste to lessen its toxins. bacteria are believed to eat the toxins in the material, making it lesser hazardous. Water is used in the United States to treat hazardous wastes. Sulfuric acid wastes, if not recycled, can be treated with ammonia wastes from the same plant, forming ammonium sulfate, a fertilizer (Encarta Encyclopedia, 20 07).Another treatment for the wastes is solidification. In this process, the waste is melted and then combine with binder for it to huge solid mass. This process is widely used for radioactive wastes. Specific types of wastes require specific treatment. Lack of knowledge regarding this often leads to more trouble and danger. Caroline Black and Chris Stavroudis presented several ways for treatments and disposal of certain wastes and gave precautionary measures in dealing with them. In their article Hazardous wasteland Disposal, they started with the solvents.These are highly corrosive materials that may include paints, oils or polymer residues. These must be kept in glaze over jars and not in coat containers to avoid rusting. If what is left to dispose is only a small amount, it can be allowed to evaporate. However, it must not be disposed on sinks and water pipes. This rule does not exempt water-soluble substances. When these accumulate in water pipe, it may cause fire or explos ion. Since detergents are widely used in household, it is important to know that this is the only toxic substance allowed to be disposed of in the drain.Unlike solvents, there is no tendency to accumulate combustible vapors that pose threat of explosion in the detergents. However, the triethanolamine is exempted from this. This particular substance must be treated as a solvent (Black C. and C. Stavroudis). For radical and acids, the first thing that has to be done before treating or disposing it is the presence of a heavy metal like mercury, copper, zinc or cadmium. If any of this is a component of the waste, it must be mark in a container and be removed with the help of the authorities. It must not be disposed in the sewer system.Otherwise, the acid and alkali can be neutralised with the use of vinegar and baking soda, respectively. Then, they can be disposed in the drain with the aid of plenty of water. Ether, being a highly inflammable substance must be treated with utmost ca re. It must be kept in a metal jar, not a glass one, to reduce the formation of peroxide. Upon using ether, there must be no fire that is near. Even a lit cigarette can arouse fire. If the ether was kept beyond three months, it must be surrendered to neglect squads because it has higher tendency of exploding (Black C.and C. Stavroudis).While several chemicals can be used to countervail and treat some toxic substances, there are some which can aggravate the problem than diminish it. For one, acids and alkalis must be kept separated, as well as solvents and known flammable substances(Black C. and C. Stavroudis). Because toxic waste disposal has been a long-running problem, countries have long tried different measures to telephone this problem. However, the process of treating and disposing the wastes are too costly and not to mention health-threatening.Even if there are ways to treat it in landfills or special sites, it is difficult to come a place where dumpsites could be estab lished. And so, rich nations opt to bring them to the trinity innovation nations in exchange for several billions of dollars or so. These Third World Nations, driven by their need for funds for their own development ofttimes accept these offers, discounting the threat it pose. This act increases the problem. The shipment of toxic wastes is usually by means of cargoes or ships. The tendency of spilling the wastes in its way to its destination is high.Also, the pass receiver nations do not usually have enough facilities and technologies to treat the wastes properly. This result to a larger threat for the people and the environment of the receiving nation. Also, landfills and dumpsites are usually inhabited by slums and squatters, ignoring the huge possibility of acquiring illness. Although several nations already realized the adverse effects of accepting wastes from other nations, still, there are some which continues to be the garbage bag of the richer nations. However, it is very essential to word that this act do not solve the problem.It just moves it. It is like transition the burden to the other. Through time, much legislation has been passed to address the issue of proper waste, especially toxic wastes, management. However, the main concern is their treatment and disposal. But the catch is there is no completely safe way to do this. one way or another, the waste would still affect the land, the water, and the air. And so, to really address this problem which started with the existence of these waste materials, the control must be put on the production and manufacturing of this highly toxic substances.The industries must find alternatives to their breathing materials to find them less toxic. Further studies may also be cerebrate to improve the sewer system. Recycling and reusing had also been the longest running advice to minimize the waste. The problem on waste disposal must be address right down to its roots. It is not just the duty of the governm ent officials, or the environmentalists, but rather, it is the duty of everyone. It might not be realized, but nonchalant is an opportunity to change the situation.
The purpose of the Management Challenges and Concerns Report is to indicate the responsibilities of focussing and how to meet or exceed company goals. Some of the responsibilities of human mental imagery management consist of providing employees with information on the companys vision, goal, HIPPA cover rights, and mission statement. In addition, employees receive information on safety rules, policy benefits, compensation, employee relations, training, and orientation classes. These responsibilities are significant and require patience along with virile leaders. kind-hearted Resource Managers has to acquire a bachelors or masters degree in management, management classes, and pass test. excessively human resource management requires the following characteristics positive, consistent, prompt, role model, team player, and upstanding leaders. Performance Management consist of appraisal system, driving appraisal process, evaluating employee action, and performance counseling (Brews ter & Soderstrom, 1994). Internal issues pertaining to employees consist of productivity, abiding by company rules, safety, expiry training classes, and positive work ethics. Human Resource Management has rules and regulations in the company handbook to ensure consistency at work. These rules and regulations set the footstep for a productive and master workplace environment for employees and management. Internal issues whitethorn arise however it is human resources job to insure the policies put in place are being effective and followed.Staying Connected with raw talentsAnother example and challenge that we seem to face being adequate to(p) to stay consociateed with the and newfangled talent, numerous businesses have increased a presence in social media platforms. Many companies have established Facebook and LinkedIn accounts to connect with prospective employees few of them have even created specific accounts to attract their young employees to make do their working experie nces and how satisfied they are with their employers. For example they can share information ab let out its internship programs, how the CEOs mission and vision is viewed and affirm informed on daily bulletins. Half of the population in the united States is younger than 30 years old and Human Resources managers extremity to be very cognizant of what the younger people want and need from a career in the workplace and how to attract these talent.Enticing Technical gift and Generating Opportunities Although the countrys unemployed rate is still at 9.1%, the need for Information Technology work force like Electronic Engineers mud a shortage at many businesses. To appeal higher skillful talent, various Human Resource recruiters are going back to shallow to search for these talents. Its a challenge, but theres resources out there that can be found and assist in rescue talent to an organization.ReferencesBloomberg BNA Talent Management Among Top Issues Facing HR Professionals in 20 13 Brown, W., Yoshioka, C.F., & Munoz, P. (2004). Organizational mission as a summation dimensionin employee retention. Journal of special K and Recreation Administration, 22(2) 28-43.Brown, W., Yoshioka, C.F., & Munoz, P. (2004). Organizational mission as a core dimensionin employee retention. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 22(2) 28-43.Brown, W., Yoshioka, C.F., & Munoz, P. (2004). Organizational mission as a core dimensionin employee retention. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 22(2) 28-43.Ban, C., Drahnak-Faller, A. & Towers, M. (2003). Human resource challenges in humanservice and community development organizations Recruitment and retention of professional staff. Review of familiar Personnel Administration, 23(2) 133-153Ban, C., Drahnak-Faller, A. & Towers, M. (2003). Human resource challenges in humanservice and community development organizations Recruitment and retention of professional staff. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 23(2) 1 33-153Brewer, G. A. & Selden, S. (1998). Whistleblowers in the federal civil service New evidenceof the public service ethic. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory,8(3) 413-39.Brewer, G.A. & Selden, S. (1999). furrow sculpting The art of retaining your best people. Harvard Business Review, 144-152.Press the Escape key to close
Friday, February 22, 2019
Evolution of the genus valet. Charles Darwin was the basic to formulate a scientific rock for the theory of evolution by Natural Selection. The idea of natural survival of the fittest is basic eachy the survival of the fittest. Evolution is any change in characteristics in biological populations. It gives diversity to life on all known biological organizations such as molecules, organs, organisms, etc. Life is give tongue to to be originated from a universal common ancestor, which tells us that all life is related to to each one other.Life started from simple celled organisms known as prokaryotes, which spudd into eukaryotes after photosynthesizing bacteria evolved forcing oxygen stringency to rise in the atmospheric. This event known as the Great oxidation Event acted as poison on many bacteria that usage carbon dioxide as an energy source. After the evolution of eukaryotes, sexual fostering appe bed and increased the evolution rate tremendously. Complex multi-cellular or ganisms started to appear soon after, first of all in oceans and then on land.Over time, life diversified into millions of organisms. The genus Homo first evolved around 2. 5 Ma from Australopithecine genus (now extinct). The first homo species believed to evolve were called Homo Habilis. They lived side by side with another homo species called Homo erectus until at least 1. 44 Ma. H. Habilis were in addition the first species to make tools taboo of stone. H. Erectus resembled young mankind and colonized in Africa. They had a brain surface 74% that of modern humans and had ways of making better tools and also hunted bigger animals.Another species, Homo Antecessors were common ancestors of humans and H. Neanderthals. Modern humans shared 99% of their DNA with Neanderthals and Neanderthals also had a similar gene linked to speech. Another species, Homo Heidelbergensis may be an ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans. Finally, modern humans or Homo Sapiens are said to first a ppeared around 200 Ka around Oma river, Ethiopia. There are 2 famous models that explain where the modern day humans originated from. Both models are supported by evidence and therefore are accept by different scientists.The Replacement model says that modern humans originated in Africa and replaced all other archaic humans beginning 60,000 years ago. The regional doggedness model argues that all modern human evolved more or less(prenominal) simultaneously in all major parts of old dry land from local archaic humans. It is believed that environmental variables, along with natural adaption, such as pathogens, diet, survival needs, climate, etc. caused the different phenotypic diversity among human populations and then complicating the puzzle of modern human evolution.
CH. 7 electoral Process 55. Explain why the nominating process is a full of life first step in the electoral process? You swallow to put up people nominated for office to draw someone to vote for 56. attain self-announcement, the caucus, & the convention as nominating methods. Self-nomination is the act of indicating the item vacancy announcements for which you want to be considered. Caucus is a meeting of a political party or collection to coordinate members actions, choose group policy, or nominate candidates. 57.Compare a closed master(a) & an feed primary explaining the key differences. In an open primary bothone can vote for any candidate in every party regard little of whether they are registered populist or republican. In a closed primary you can only if vote for someone in your registered party. 58. Explain why some candidates using up the petition as a nominating device. Petition Candidates must gather a required number of voters signatures to nurture on the bal lot by promoter of petition. Minor party and nonparasitic candidates are usually required by State law to be nominated by petition. 9. Voter carriage in primaries is usually less than half of what it is in the general elections. What travel could you take in your residential district to increase voter turn come in in primary elections? You can endure drives to get people registered and give out fliers about candidates positions and date of the election. 60. Explain how the accedes are & the national Government is involved in regulating the electoral process. Each state has a system called the Electoral College. Each state has a certain amount according to the Constitution.For mannequin if the majority of people that live in Wisconsin vote Democrat, the chosen elective Electorates vote in choice. 61. Explain why Election Day is the Tuesday after(prenominal) the first Monday in November. Since most residents of country America had to travel a significant distance to the county seat in order to vote, Monday was not considered fair(a) since many people would need to get off travel on Sunday. 62. qualify the graphic symbol that voting precincts & polling places in the election process.Polling places are often find in facilities used for other purposes, such asschools,churches,sports halls, local government activityoffices, or even private homes, and entrust each serve a similar number of people. 63. Describe the heterogeneous different ways in which voters can cast their ballots. Voters will have to visit polling places in their Districts and channelize a voter ID. 64. Explain the role that voting devices play in the election process. It increases the turnout of people overdue to their laziness in attending a polling place.Elections and Wisconsin Vote DemocratCH. 7 Electoral Process 55. Explain why the nominating process is a critical first step in the electoral process? You have to have people nominated for office to have someone to vote for 56. Describe self-announcement, the caucus, & the convention as nominating methods. Self-nomination is the act of indicating the specific vacancy announcements for which you want to be considered. Caucus is a meeting of a political party or group to coordinate members actions, choose group policy, or nominate candidates. 57.Compare a closed primary & an open primary explaining the key differences. In an open primary anyone can vote for any candidate in either party regardless of whether they are registered democrat or republican. In a closed primary you can only vote for someone in your registered party. 58. Explain why some candidates use the petition as a nominating device. Petition Candidates must gather a required number of voters signatures to get on the ballot by means of petition. Minor party and independent candidates are usually required by State law to be nominated by petition. 9. Voter turnout in primaries is usually less than half of what it is in the general electio ns. What steps could you take in your community to increase voter turnout in primary elections? You can have drives to get people registered and give out fliers about candidates positions and date of the election. 60. Explain how the states are & the federal Government is involved in regulating the electoral process. Each state has a system called the Electoral College. Each state has a certain amount according to the Constitution.For example if the majority of people that live in Wisconsin vote Democrat, the chosen democratic Electorates vote in choice. 61. Explain why Election Day is the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. Since most residents of rural America had to travel a significant distance to the county seat in order to vote, Monday was not considered reasonable since many people would need to begin travel on Sunday. 62. Define the role that voting precincts & polling places in the election process.Polling places are often located in facilities used for other purpos es, such asschools,churches,sports halls, local governmentoffices, or even private homes, and will each serve a similar number of people. 63. Describe the various different ways in which voters can cast their ballots. Voters will have to visit polling places in their Districts and show a voter ID. 64. Explain the role that voting devices play in the election process. It increases the turnout of people due to their laziness in attending a polling place.
Thursday, February 21, 2019
Mrs. Kelsey Bowser using the ABC mode decided to use the be of garments as the appeal driver of the convertnate- everyplace be. Nevertheless, I argue that this was non the best manageable choice. I forget discover to defend my point using the interest example. Lets turn in that derive Who Jeans moves 600, not 500 garments per shipment. Although the bend of garments changes, the total change-over hail would chip the same, because no additional retooling of the work would be necessary. The whole change-over process takes 3 hours construeing if the come in of garments is 200, 500 or 800. Furthermore, lets strictly theoretically assume that the association is able to achieve whatever extra energy and one batch is now composed of 150 garments instead of nose housedy garments. Still, although the total number of garments would vastly increase, the change-over be would be altered lone(prenominal) relegateially. The probability greet measured as a lost pie ce margin would slightly increase, tho the out-of-pocket greet would stay the same, as the wages of the employees and supplies be exit not change.Thus, it is clear that the number of garments is not the proper cost driver for the change-over costs. In my opinion the number of shipments would be a much wear cost driver for the change-over costs. Regarding the number of garments or the number of batches remember Who Jeans demands every(prenominal) shipment requires the change-over costs to be incurred twice. For instance, if 99 shipments were made, the total change-over costs would equal $351 * 198 = $69,498, because cardinal change-overs ($702) would not defy to be undertaken. Thus, the number of shipments clearly drives the discerpd costs. Un a exchangeablely the previous example with the number of garments per batch increasing to 150, the number of shipments fully drives the change-over costs. Every era the number of shipments rises or falls, the change-over costs chang e by the full amount of the two per-changeover costs which properly ponder the real situation. employ such(prenominal) a cost driver may be businessatic when the allocation of the change-over costs is analyzed. Nevertheless, I argue that those cost should be entirely allocated to the propriety jean lasting.The demand for the sto untestedashing go exceeds the gilds capableness. Thus, if the bet Who Jeans suffer was declined, the company would use the whole capacity for sto new-madeashing. However, if the offer was accepted the stonewashing processes would be in some way interrupted by the propriety jean turn backing. Each interruption, and and so individually shipment would require incurring the change-over costs twice. No reckon connected with stonewashing drives those costs. Regarding the number of batches or garments used in the stonewashing process each shipment necessitates the cost of $702. Therefore, I mean this cost should be associated with every shipmen t done by gauge Who Jeans. In appurtenance A I give birth the point of intersection profitability abstract using the number of shipment as the cost driver.Moreover, Mrs. Kelsey Bowser claims that the change-over costs should be wrap uped as product-sustaining costs. Nevertheless, I believe her opinion is wrong. I believe these costs should be on the batch level in the cost pecking order. Hence, I believe the initial abstract undertaken by Mrs. Bowser was correct, although the cost driver she selected was improper. Product-sustaining level costs could be defined as activities that argon needed to support an whole product line but atomic number 18 not performed every time a new unit or batch of products is produced Hilton 2010. Although the first part of the exposition applies to the change-over costs, it is clearly not the typesetters case when the aid part of the definition is concerned. The change-over costs pass to be incurred every time the shipments is delivered a nd the propriety denim finishing has to be done. Therefore, I believe these costs should be or else placed as the batch-level costs in the cost hierarchy.Batch-level costs are believed to arise from activities performed once for each batch or lot of products Zimmerman 2011. Since the change-over costs need to be incurred every shipment, placing them at this level in the hierarchy seems reasonable. 2. It is clear that before accepting the proposal several nonfinancial issues obtain to be considered in order to shed a reasonable ending. First, the wariness should think how accepting the Gues Who offer would affect the relations with the other clients. Since Guess Who requires the jean Finishing play along not to offer the especial(a) slip of finish to other customers, it is very likely that relations with other firms leave alone worsen. The dungaree Finishing Company has been cooperating with many companies for a long time. Therefore, those companies may dislike the fact t hat the new client contracts the special treatment, fleck such benefits could not be observed in their case, until now though they have been the customers for ages.Consequently, the denim Finishing Companys reputation may bounce and furthermore the firm may lose some of its customers that it had long condition relations established with. Accepting the Guess Who offer, as mentioned before, would require the blue jean Finishing Company to offer the certain time of finish only to Guess Who. Hence, the firm would be prohibited from providing other companies with this service. Before do the closing it should be analyzed if that could lead to authority losses in the future tense. For instance, although cooperating with Guess Who may be beneficial, the potential gains from offering that type of finish to other clients could be postgraduate. If so, the Denim Finishing Company should rather set aside the service to other firms. Naturally, before making such a decision it has to be determined if other firms would require the Denim Finishing Company to offer the service exclusively to them, like it is the case for Guess Who. go exclusive service to one company may outcome in other companies (not only potential clients as mentioned in the previous paragraph, but to a fault current ones) demands for exclusive treatment.If other clients, especially those who have been cooperating with the Denim Finishing Company for a long time, realize that it is possible to receive such a special treatment, they would likely claim for it too, as it could erupt them a competitive advantage over other firms in their industry. Thus, the Denim Finishing Company would doubtlessly face a big problem. It theoretically could increase the prices for the firms that demand exclusive service, but it could lead to losing those clients. Accepting or declining the Guess Who offer may also result in potential conflicts within the firm that have to be considered. For instance, Bruce Farr and who is against the offer may be so determined in defending his point of view that if the offer is accepted, he will decide to terminate his employment.However, he force be so valuable for the company that the gains from the cooperation with Guess Who would not compensate for the note measure added by Mr. Farrand. Moreover, some other conflicts could arise in the company by and by deciding either. Before making the decision it would also be recommended to analyze the potential influence the service offered to Guess Who could have on the motorcar. Since providing the finish would require constant and much retooling of the machine, it could negatively affect the lifetime of the machine. What is more, it is possible that the quality of services done by the machine would shrink because of those often changes. Hence, the satisfaction among clients could diminish and the high cost of purchasing new machine would have to be incurred soon.It also cannot be forgotten that the curren t demand exceeds the firms capacity and some of its clients already use services provided by other companies. Thus, if the Denim Finishing Companys has even less time for stonewashing, these clients can shift to competitors. Finally, it should be estimated what potential nonfinancial benefits could cooperating with Guess Who bring to the Denim Finishing Company. Guess Who is considered to be a company that offers innovative and premium products. Thus, being an important business quisling of such a firm could have a positive allude on the Denim Finishing Companys reputation. Consequently, it could attract new clients and encourage more companies to cooperate with the Denim Finishing Company. Moreover, successful cooperation with Guess Who Jeans could lead to extending the business relations with that company. For instance, it could outsource more of its exertion to the Denim Finishing Company.3. If I were gobbler Corcoran, I would undoubtedly have a few oral sexs for the comman d. First, I would aim almost all the problems mentioned in the two previous questions. As mentioned before, I believe that Mrs. Bowser did not place the change-over costs at the right level in the cost hierarchy. Hence, I would like to get to know why she decided to treat them as product-sustaining costs, while there are a lot of arguments supporting the idea to treat them as batch-level costs. Furthermore, the cost driver chosen by Mrs. Bowser is highly doubtful. I would require the explanation how and to what extent in her opinion the number of garments drives the change-over costs. Since I believe the number of garments is not the right cost driver, I would expect Mrs. Bowser for some other type of profitability analytic thinking, such as the digest presented in Appendix A. The summary presented at the meeting by the mastery could be misleading.Both Exhibit 3 and Exhibit 4 present information that is in my opinion inaccurate. Moreover, as it was analyzed in the second que stion accepting or declining the offer could lead to multiple nonfinancial outcomes that may play a significant role on the companys profitability. Hence, I would ask if such factors have been analyzed and if so, what possible impact they may have. I also believe that Tom Corcoran would be most interested in the total profit his company would have under both scenarios. Analyses presented at the meeting, as valuable as they might be, do not contain such information. For instance, they do not involve the facility-sustaining costs that the Denim Finishing Company has to incur. Hence, it would be recommended to present Tom Corcoran with the yearly profit the firm may earn. Moreover, I would ask Mrs. Bowser about the accuracy of her assumptions in Exhibit 4. She estimates that the costs of the proprietary process, as nearly as the price paid by Guess Who Jeans will not change during the year. However, it may not necessarily be the case. The analysis relies on historical costs that may not be appropriate for the future estimations.Thus, I would like to know if Mrs. Bowser took that aspect into account. Another question would regard the overhead pass judgment of the batch- and unit-level costs. The rates were estimated when only stonewashing was done. However, accepting the offer from Guess Who Jeans would require retaining from using the machine for 600 hours. This could likely result in antithetical overhead costs and consequently different overhead rates. The batch-level utility cost can be particularly problematic. It is driven by the machine hours and as previously mentioned the machine is not used for 3 hours before and 3 hours after the shipment. Furthermore, the case makes it unclear whether drying is also performed by the Unit 4. The per-garment utilities cost includes 3 hours for washing and 3 hours for drying.However, when the change-over is undertaken, the washing is not performed, because the machine cannot be used. Therefore, during the change-over the utilities cost is possibly dismay. This is especially important for the opportunity cost analysis. Since the case is absentminded information explaining the problem, if I were Tom Corcoran I would like to clear up it. Finally, I strongly believe that it would also be necessary to ask Mrs. Bowser about the facility-sustaining costs. Such costs are ignored in the controllers analysis. Nevertheless, they still affect the companys profitability. Hence, I would like to get to know how big those costs are.Moreover, the facility-sustaining costs could also be somehow influenced by the possible cooperation with Guess Who Jeans. For instance, the security or insurance costs could rise, since the service is supposed to be offered exclusively to that particular client. Therefore, the analysis of the capacity-sustaining costs would also be reusable. To sum up, if I were Tom Corcoran I would have many doubts about the controllers analysis. I would plausibly ask her to prepare yet anoth er presentation that includes my suggestions. However, if I were to make the decision, I probably would accept the Guess Who Jeans offer. The analysis in the Appendix A, although it does not include nonfinancial factors and may not properly reflect all the costs, clearly shows that such a scenario leads to increased profits.4. Activity-based cost is undoubtedly a useful tool that could help the attention to make the best decision. It is much more accurate that the conventional be systems. Distinguishing various activities and find out cost drivers relating to them helps to more precisely allocate the costs. Using one cost driver for all the amount of the overhead could create the situation where the collateral costs are not really driven by the particular cost. For instance, although direct roil hours might to some extent determine the value of the overhead, the influence may only be partial, especially regarding certain products. Using various cost drivers for various activit ies largely eliminates this problem. What is more, selecting particular cost drivers for individual activities enables taxing certain activities.This internal tax system gives an incentive to squeeze certain costs and therefore improve the companys efficiency. For instance, if machine labor hours are chosen as a driver for the labor operation there is an impulse to lower the number of machine labor hours which consequently results in reduced value of overhead, lower costs and higher profits. Under Activity-Based Costing the share of costs allocated directly to the products increases. Thus, the company better understand where its overhead costs go to. It enables the firm to identify the products that are not profitable and undertake relevant actions, such as lessen costs, raising the price or withdrawing the product. However, the cost hierarchy helps to make such decision regarding not only particular products, but also batches and product lines. This undoubtedly allows making d ecisions that are more profit-maximizing. Moreover, in the ABC the applicatory capacity is used. Therefore, it is possible to determine the unused capacity. Diminishing the unused capacity is definitely helpful in maximizing the profits of the company.Hence, Activity-Based Costing provides the management with the information necessary to make optimal decisions. To compare, the traditional costing systems do not give such a possibility. However, the ABC method also has some flaws that may result in making a non-optimal production decision. Some of those disadvantages could be observed in the previous questions. First, the system is believed to be complicated. As noticeable in the first question choosing the proper cost driver for the particular activity might be problematic. Selecting the wrong driver could lead to biased results and consequently the decision that is not profit-maximizing. Furthermore, trying to hold up the cost hierarchy may also be difficult, as shown in the exam ple of Mrs. Bowser from the Denim Finish Company.The results when the costs were determined as the batch-level where exclusively different than when they were analyzed to be product-level. Thus, such easily made mistakes could result in a non-optimal decision. Furthermore, as it could be seen in the second question Activity-Based Costing does not include any nonfinancial measures. Thus, even though pure financial values may show that a particular decision is profit-maximizing, it might not necessarily be the case. Other factors, such as e.g. loss of reputation could actually result in decreased profits. Finally, the ABC method requires gathering data from the whole company, often by means of interviews.Hence, there is a relatively big possibility that collected data is not perfectly accurate. To sum up, the Activity-Based Costing method is quite tried tool in making optimal production decisions, especially compared to the traditional costing systems. However, the system has to be carefully planned and implemented, because any mistakes could lead to inaccurate results. Choosing the wrong cost driver and improper assignment of the costs in the cost hierarchy may result in undesired errors. Furthermore, as useful as the ABC is, the management cannot rely solely on financial values provided by the method. Before making the decision all nonfinancial factors have to be considered. Only such a consideration combined with the information supplied by the properly designed and utilise Activity-Based Costing system can lead to the optimal production decision.5. The borderline costing analysis may undoubtedly be a useful tool in making an optimal decision. However, it has to be used carefully, because some of its suggestions may be misleading. This could also be observed in the analysis presented by Mrs. Bowser. The concerns are somehow parallel to the questions raised before. First, the fringy costing analysis does not include any nonfinancial factors. Hence, altho ugh the particular activity may seem profitable, it might not necessary be true. Second, the analysis is based on the historical, not the actual costs. The actual costs and price that Guess Who Jeans would be required to pay may differ over the time. Similarly, the application of the overhead depends on the estimates rather than the actual values. Thus, over or underabsorption may happen. Moreover, as mentioned before, after accepting the offer the overhead rates could change. Thus, the costs provided by the controller in the analysis might be inaccurate.As pointed out in the previous question the case is lacking the information about the possible decrease in the utilities costs during the change-overs. If that was true, the opportunity cost associated with the lost contribution margin on sales of 70,000 stonewashed garments would good increase. Considerably, the incremental profit from accepting the new offer would diminish. Another problem with Mrs. Bowsers analysis, as well as w ith all the marginal costing analyses is that they do not include the costs that do not change with the unit volume. However, such costs could also influence the decision. Although the analysis presented by the controller shows that accepting the offer would be highly profitable, the figures would not tone of voice so vastly appealing if the amount of capacity-sustaining overhead was included in the Exhibit. Furthermore, the presented analysis is only a short-term one. Nevertheless, before making a strategic management the management also has to consider the long-term perspective.The analysis shows that in the certain year the incremental profits from accepting the Guess Who Jeans offer would equal some particular value. The analysis only includes one year though. In the following years the profits could be lower and thus declining the offer could actually be a better decision. For instance, look that Guess Who Jeans needs the propriety denim finishing services for its new product s that are just to be introduced to the market. The client may expect the high demand for the new product in the first year. However, in the following years the demand for the product, and consequently for the Denim Finishing Companys services may shrink.Finally, the marginal costing analysis includes only one-case scenario. It assumes that the communicate and the actual number of shipments will be equal. However, it is not certain if that will happen. If some unexpected events happen the marginal costing analysis will not properly reflect the real situation. It cannot be forgotten that the marginal costing analysis is a simple and straightforward tool that can support the decision making. It is particularly useful when two products or divisions are to be compared. Moreover, it can give the management the basis for analyzing the opportunity cost of declining the Guess Who Jeans offer. However, the marginal costing analysis should be used carefully. I believe it should be treated as a supportive putz for decision making rather than the major source of information. Hence, if the controller alter a few things, the analysis could help to make the optimal, profit-maximizing decision.