Friday, May 31, 2019

Doctor Dolittle :: essays research papers

My book report is on remedy Dolittle. The author of thisbook is Hugh Lofting. Doctor Dolittle talks to the animalsand is also kind of like a veterinarian. He knows most of theanimal languages. He really calls himself a naturalist whichstudies plants and animals. He lives in Puddleby, England.He has an assistant named Stubbins. Doctor Dolittle wantsto learn the language of the shellfish because they are one ofthe oldest animals on earth. He thinks that they can tell himsecrets of the past. Doctor Dolittle decided to give up on theshellfish language for a while. Stubbins and the Doctor play agame that you close your eyes and flip the pages of an atlasand put a draw down on the page. The place that he pickedwas Spidermonkey Island. The purple bird of paradise tellshim that the greatest naturalist is Long Arrow and that helives at Spidermonkey Island. Doctor Dolittle goes on avoyage to Spidermonkey Island. The Doctor goes and hesaves Long Arrow and 9 other Indians from a cave that aro ck had covered the entrance. Doctor Dolittle arrange a wayto dig under the rock and make it fall. Another tribe on theother side of the island wanted to go to war with the cool indians. They were going to fight because they wereto lazy to do work because the island was floating S come forwardh andgetting cold. The Doctor, Long Arrow, and another manbasically won the war for the tribe. They swung clubs andknocked everyone out of the way. Then Polynesia(a talkingparrot) brought millions of black parrots from SouthAmerica. Most of the other tribe got their ears bit off.Doctor Dolittle was made king of the tribe. They changedhis name to Jong Thinkalot because they didnt think Dolittle convulsion him. Doctor wanted to go but he had to stay and teachthe tribe to do things more modern.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Nathan Hawthorne :: Literary Analysis, Young Goodman Brown

In Nathan Hawthornes short story, Young Goodman Brown, the plot is carried through each stage of Freytags Pyramid. I will be discussing the rising action, climax, dropping action, and discovery and reversal. I will explain why each of these sections are important to the reader. The complications begin as Goodman Brown walks out the door. The tensions between Goodman Browns own egotism and his wife Faith begin the rising action of the story. The first complication is between Goodman Brown and Faith. Goodman Brown has an errand, which, he never discloses to Faith or the reader. She asks him non to go, because she feels that something is wrong, he insists that he must leave her. I believe this undisclosed errand is to raise suspense for the reader. The next complication is as Goodman Brown turns out to leave. He is hesitant and starts to question his own judgments. He justifies his actions by forecasting that after this errand he will never leave Faiths side. The road he walks toward brings more tension. The blasphemous road, darkened by all the gloomiest trees of the forest, which barely stood aside to let the narrow path creep through, and closed immediately behind,(325). The description of the road brings suspense to the reader. He said There may be a devilish Indian behind every tree, (326) then he spots a figure of a man. Goodman Brown nervously follows the old man as they talk and walk take in the road. Goodman Brown notices the old mans staff which bore the similitude of a great black snake, (326). The man rushes Goodman Brown down the trail. Goodman Brown eventually stops and said It is my purpose now to return whence I came, (327). The devilish old man persistence to continue down this long darken trail rises suspense. It makes the reader wonder, what is so important? Does Goodman Brown run away or keep going? This brings the third complication. In the forest Goodman Brown sees Goody Cloyse once his spiritual advisor and teacher. The devilish old ma n throws down his staff and she disappears. This make Goodman Brown believe that she is a witch. He also sees Deacon Gookin and the Minister in the ominous forest. This brings a burden to Goodman Brown that he can hardly stand. These are supposed to be the three purest of the townspeople. Yet, he sees them in a place where no church have ever been self-possessed or solitary Christian prayed, (329).

Anticipatory (Pre-emptive) Self-defence: The Need for a Modern Approac

Anticipatory (Pre-emptive) Self-defence The Need for a Modern ApproachThe use of military force is a valid ordinary international law of nature norm and it is enshrined in the United Nations Charter. Nevertheless, the use of force is only authorised if it falls under one of two categories self-defence (article 41 of the United Nations Charter), or Security Council authorisation. To justify a resort to pre-emptive war, a state must give reasonable proof that the execute is necessary to the vital national security interests of the state, and that the act of aggression in self-defence is proportional, according to Charter principles. The threat imposed by an assailant must be be to be clear and imminent, direct, critical to the state facing disproportionate danger, and unable to be handled using peaceful alternatives. According to the Charter, to deem self-defence lawful requires that an antiaircraft gun has already been launched against a victim state. Examples of states a cting pre-emptively in anticipatory self-defence have further elaborated on this legality, creating in some instances an international acceptance that in the case of an imminent attack, the necessity of a proportional assault in self-defence is lawful. However, the issue remains that the Charter, in order to deem an action as lawful self-defence, requires the existence of an armed attack on the victim state. Interpretation on what constitutes an armed attack is what generates the most disagreement amongst the international law community. It is agreeable, however, that no state can be expected to sit idly by and await the first blow of an armed attack by an aggressor state in the modern era of warfare. The recent War on Terrorism is giving us an example of how... ...efence. American Journal Of International rectitude. Vol. 97, none 3, pp. 601-602.10 Bothe, Michael.(2003) Terrorism and the Legality of Pre-emptive Force. European Journal of International Law. Vol. 14, No. 2 p. 230.11 United States National Security Strategy. 17 September 2002. United States part of State Information Service. Available at http// Sapiro, Miriam. (2003) Iraq The Shifting Sands of Pre-Emptive Self-Defence. American Journal Of International Law. Vol. 97, No. 3, p. 602.13 Schmitt, Michael.(2003). Pre-emptive Strategies and International Law. Michigan Journal of International Law. Pp 513-548.14 Schmitt, Michael. (2003) Pre-emptive Strategies and International Law. Michigan Journal of International Law. Pp 513-548.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Music Censorship is a Violation of Free Speech -- Argumentative Persua

Music is one of the most popular ways of rule and has been for generations. It makes us want to dance, inspires, soothes, relaxes, and sometimes tells us a story. Music is something the whole world shares and has brought together different kinds of people. However, there has been a question on whether some music has shanghaied baseball club negatively and crossed the line with some of its lyrics, content, and the persona of the artists. Certain music has been boycotted and even banned in the U.S. Pro-censorship supporters say that music is something that can deeply affect our society especially children who should not have to be subjected to things like violence, sex, drugs, or hate. However, being that music is a form of expression, censoring it would just be violating everyones indemnify to freedom of speech and expression.The First Amendment clearly states that the U.S. government cannot make a law stopping the freedom of speech. Pro-censorship supporters say music is not incl uded beneath the First Amendment but it is since music is expression. The freedom of speech includes freedom of expression and the right to hold your own touch. This country is founded on the idea that we should be sufficient to say, read, or publish anything we want. Music is an artist?s form of expression and banning or censoring his or her music would be stopping his or her right to say whatever he/she wants. We also have and value our own opinions and ideas and in return, respect every one else?s. If someone bans or censors a certain song because of it?s ideas, then we are not respecting the artist?s right to an opinion. An audience might have a certain opinion which we can discuss among ourselves, yet if an artist wants to sing a song about it, people want... ...nd doesn?t necessarily reflect the artist. Eminem has never raped anyone or killed anyone, but when he raps about it, it is just the way he feels at the moment sometimes but never engages in the action. In today?s s ociety, we value and learn to tolerate different cultures and people. Sometimes people end up expressing themselves differently as well. This country is based on the idea that we may express ourselves any way we want to, be it religion, organizing, writing, or speaking. Music has been a popular form of expression for centuries. These days, in the country best cognize for freedom, some people are trying to censor it the freedom of music. Music should not be censored along with any other form of expression otherwise what we and artists say are being controlled. If we value freedom, then that includes what we may say and how we say it even in musical form.

The Brains of Violent Males Essay -- Compare Contrast Suicide Homicide

The Brains of Violent Males It becomes increasingly evident that some of the destruction which curses the earth is self-destruction the extraordinary propensity of the human being to join hands with outside(a) forces in an attack upon his own existence is one of the most remarkable of biological phenomena. -Karl Menninger (1). Violence is everywhere in our society- in movies, television programs, video games, and professed(prenominal) sports such as boxing and wrestling. In 2000, 28,663 deaths were related to firearms. 58% were reported as suicides and 39% were reported as homicides (2). The objective of this paper is to qualitatively quantify and compare the brains of male murderers and male suicide victims. Even though more than females attempt suicide, males are used for comparison because males are four times more promising to die from a suicide attempt (3). Male suicidal individuals have a higher success rate because they are more likely to kill themselves in a viol ent manner (i.e. using a gun). At first glance, most people would argue that homicide and suicide are mated behaviors, yet the relationship may not be that straightforward. If it is assumed that the brain dictates behavior and that suicide and homicide are independent behaviors, one would expect that researchers would find differences betwixt the brains of suicide victims and murderers. At the other extreme, suicide and homicide can be considered similar behaviors because in both cases an individual engages in cleanup position someone, the only thing that differs is where the killing impulse is directed. Homicide is directed towards the external world, whereas suicide is aggression turned inward. When the cause of unhappiness can be attributed to an external s... ...robiology of suicide.http// Decision-making processes following damage to the prefrontal cortex, Article from Brain (2002).http// t/125/3/624.pdf 9) Whats different about a Killers Brain? Whitley Striebers web pagehttp// 10) Why? The neuroscience of suicide forcible clues to suicide , Scientific American article.http// Paxil & murder/ suicide. A story about how the maker of Paxil held liable in murder/suicide.http// The judicial decision of a killer. ABC news web page which contains pictures of normal brain and a murderers brain http//

Monday, May 27, 2019

A Separate Peace :: essays research papers

The Mind Murders the BodyAdolescent knowledges are of the most complex companionships due to the suppressed feelings of contempt one child whitethorn feel toward a nonher. The deterioration of the complex friendship of element and Phineas is brought about in John Knowles A Separate Peace by the combination of their envy and denial. Finny and divisor begin their summer of 1942 with the illusion of a great companionship. Genes paranoia and envy disrupt the relationship between him and Finny. As their friendship disintegrates, Finny and Gene get over that the problems in their alliance even exist, which in turn leads to a tragic catastrophe.Gene and Finny initiate their summer of 1942 with the false perception that their friendship is flawless. At the root system of the story, Gene seems to accept Finnys superior athletic ability, but he resents what he feels was Finny flaunting his abilities. Finny demonstrates his superior agility to Gene when he grabs Genes hand, alter him sup port when he loses his balance during one of their routine jumps from a towering tree. Gene feels that he should not feel any rush of gratitude toward Phineas, because he does not like feeling clumsier than Finny. Instead, he blames his presence in the tree on Phineas. Finny also has the role of being the leader in their friendship. They sustain the balance of the friendship when Phineas thinks of something to do, and Gene supports him. The problem with this is that Gene except trails Finny so that he would not lose face with him. Gene never speaks up when he has a problem, hereby damaging their lines of communication. Another principal factor that dissolves the bond between them is Genes jealousy. Gene is envious of Finnys athletic and social power. Finny has the ability to blither his way out of any tough situation if he attempts to manipulate someone, that person might show a flow of simple unregulated friendliness. Gene sees how everyone loves Phineas, and that makes him feel unworthy.As Genes envy and paranoia take over him, he is drawn farther from the truth that lies within his brotherhood with Phineas. When Gene realizes that his only advantage over Finny is his mind, he begins competing with Finny. His paranoia leads him to believe that Phineas has deliberately set out to wreck his studies. Finnys only objective is to have fun with his best friend, but Gene sees it as Phineas attempt to keep him from studying for his examinations.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

The Practices in Leadership Essay Essay

The Practices in Leadership have changed in the post-bureaucratic era. Remember similarly that your assignment must demonstrate critical thinking, as I have emphasised in each lecture. Question assumptions by considering the negative aspects of post-bureaucratic soft effect. Is it desirable in all circumstances? Are there ethical considerations? What about concerns with subtle manipulation and control? You need to grapple with the complexity of the issues not save give a one-sided managerialist argument. Leadership is essential in the post-bureaucratic era however leadinghip is an extremely complex term that is often an overthought and has an indefinite translation in society. Leadership can be defined as the process of directing, controlling, motivating and inspiring staff towards the stated organisational goals. (Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis 2011, p. 126). There are legion(predicate) conventional theories of leadershiphip which I will be discussing including personality tra its, behaviors, postmodern and the contingency theory. Ernest Shackletons leadership is viewed as nothing short of spectacular during his journey across the south-polar continent overland. One day away from Land, the vessel became iced in, and eventually sank. Shackletons role as a leader was to get every man home alive.Shackleton displayed common chord leadership show upes/theories he displayed on the remarkable journey .Shackletons ability to lead his men emphasizes technical and personality skills, which both can be learned and developed. The skills approach is centered around this idea, however skills can be also gained through past experiences, as seen by Shackleton, this the main reason the men respected him, overdue to his well-known knowledge. The expressive way of life approach was displayed by Shackleton through his tasks and interpersonal relationships with others. Conflicts between men on board the Endurance were often resolved by Shackleton, this presenting the sty le approach being displayed by him. The Contingency Theory was also explored in Shackletons journey, with unforeseen events taking place, and him being able to adapt to these due to his skills, this matching the style of approach. Leaders however in the post bureaucratic era can manipulate and deceive the public, hiding the hidden corruption of which they act. There are many leaders who have violated their responsibilities and abused their power are present in modern day society, however attempt to justify themselves with their position of power.(Herman, S 2007, p.152)heads of major nonprofit organizations who have demonstrated corruption andineptitude, military leaders whose arrogance and lack of foresight and planning have made us at worst the worlds enemy and at best the worlds laughingstock, heads of state who have boldly lied to the nation and then distorted their words when caught, and media leaders who have pandered to commercial interests while feeding us distortions if not outright lies and delivering products designed to pander to our basest instincts. There are however leaders with a genuine vision, who encompass courage and determination and are willing to sacrifice their life for their beliefs. Martin Luther King is an example of an active leader who used his power in a positive manner. (Herman, S 2007, p.153) Martin Luther King in August 1963 gathered 250,000 Americans for the march on Washington, to inspire the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.These leaders who display positive actions encompass egalitarianism and lead individuals without the use of manipulative power. Having a responsible leader in an organization is a common centrally focused objective. Boards of directors seek to select CEOs who are estimated to be most responsible for the organisations execution of instrument and capital. Being responsible and accountable are comprised performance goals in which a responsible leader aims to achieve. Taking responsibility as a leader , involves accountability, dependability, authority and empowerment ( Cameron, K 2011,p.32)

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease Essay

Dementia is a set of conditions, medically diagnosed, and leading to recognized and measurable behavioral changes in an individual. Dementia of the Alzheimers type is a chronic cognitive disorder that is manifested in impairment of either short-term or long-term memory or even both. It has a slow onset and its etiology is unknown, although many speculate that genetics may play a role as well as the decrease in acetylcholine which is a neurotransmitter that is used to carry electrical impulses from the axon of one cell to the d containrite of another. The number of neurotransmitters have been found in the brain tissue of patients with dementia and Alzheimers. Alzheimers disease accounts for ab by 70% of dementia cases. Over 4 million people argon currently diagnosed as having Alzheimers disease.There is not a specific age of onset although it usually occurs in late adulthood. People are living longer now and for this reason, the number of Alzheimers cases is on the rise. It is a neuro logical disorder of the brain that can cause overwhelming anxiety for both those affected and family members of those affected. In Alzheimers disease, normal brain tissue is replaced by neuritic plaques which basically just take up space. These brain lesions leave inevitably cause death. Various bodily functions begin to be altered depending on the resolve of the brain affected. Usually as the disease progresses, bladder control will be lost as well as the ability to swallow.The brain lesions will often times trigger the onset of seizures. Cognitive symptoms of Alzheimers disease include alteration in language, ability to solve problems, and even the inability to vex appropriate decisions. This may often times be the most difficult symptom for nurses and care providers to deal with legally. In the long run, patients will experience execute memory loss and aphasia. Non-cognitive changes include unexplained movements, urinary and fecal incontinence, aggression, and/or agitation. T here is currently no known therapeutic manipulation that can cylinder block the progression of dementia and Alzheimers disease.In caring for the Alzheimers patient, the staff must remember to refer to the patient by name and not by calling them sweetie or honey. A patient has a right to maintain dignity. If dementia is diagnosed early enough, it is advisable for the patient to designate a decision-maker which will help designate that patients assets. Quality of life in patients with dementiais a big ethical topic that becomes very historic in the late stages of dementia. During late stage dementia, ability to express pain or discomfort may be altered. In these patients verbal references to pain are absent, not because theyre not experiencing any pain but because they may not know how to express the degree of pain that they are experiencing. Because of this, regular cheek of pain medications are often prescribed (Refer to article 1 discomfort protocol). Oftentimes, family members find themselves in a bind between providing care until the very end of life or requesting the cessation of life-sustaining measures (Refer to article 2 euthanasia and assisted felo-de-se).Assessment should include family history, social history, memory (long-term and short-term),behavioral responses such as wandering, suicide risks, appearance, speech, and hallucinations. Oftentimes, a family member is needed to assist with subjective data as the patient may not remember some things. Sometimes, out of frustration, a psyche with Alzheimers will fabricate stories or details. This is believed to be a defense mechanism. They are in denial about having loss of memory.Nursing diagnoses include-altered judgment processes related to dementia.-impaired physical mobility.-alteration in nutrition related to neurological deficits in swallowing.-self care deficit.Goals should include ability to comply with treatment plan and ability to adjoin self-care requirements. Interventions for the Al zheimers patient focus on keeping the patient comfortable, nourished, and hydrated. Oftentimes, a patient will request a priest, rabbi, or minister to visit and cover religious support. In late stage Dementia and Alzheimers disease, comfort is usually one of the primary goals of the care team, since death isinevitable (refer to article 3 music and dementia). It is important to speak to these patients slowly and clearly. Many times they are able understand what is being said when spoken to at a long-play pace.In summary, Alzheimers Disease and Dementia are often secondary diagnoses and because of this, they are often overlooked in the management of care and proper treatment of patients with other diagnoses. Alzheimers Disease does not discriminate. Nobody asks to have Alzheimers so it is important to remember that patients do not always act out the way they want to. Sometimes they just cant help it.

Friday, May 24, 2019

A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration Essay

A archives of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. bloody shame Rowlandson, written by Mary Rowlandson, is about King Philips War. The war started on June 20 in 1675 and was among English colonists and Native Americans. During the war, the Indians attacked English colonists territory. They burned the colonists houses, killed the resisters and captured some of the colonists. The living of captives was in truth tough. They had to move from place to place with the Indians. The Indians treated them very badly. If they didnt listen to the Indians, they would be beaten or even be killed. Besides, the weather was cold and sometimes the food supply was short. As a result, lots of captives died during the captivity. As a victim of the Indian attacks, Mary Rowlandson wrote a vivid description of the eleven weeks and atomic number 23 days she spent living with Native Americans which owns very high value in American Literature.First of all, the work owns high historical value in American Lit erature. In her description, she vividly shows her experience as a captive which makes people easily understand the situation at this period and the relationship between English colonist and the Indians. In her description, we can find that all the English captives didnt be ruled by the same Indian master. There were diametric Indian masters. Each Indian master owned English captives and located in different places. According to the masters, the captives could be transferred from one tribe to another. Also, in the description, sometimes Mary Rowlandson communicated with the Indians.From this point, we can find that some of the Indians could speak English. Besides, in the work, we can also know how English colonists deal with Native Americans. They trade by money, clothes, tobacco, liquors, inseminate corn hemlock, ground ivy and etc. This point shows that the living of the Indians was tough then. They lacked food and some daily necessaries, so it was effective to trade with them b y something they real needed in their lives instead of money.Secondly, this work also shows the high value of Christian point of view. As a Christian, Mary Rowlandson uses lots of quotes and passages from the Bible in the description. No matter how hard the captivity was, she alwaysshowed her piety to God. Instead of blaming the Indians, she used the stories in the Bible to console her sorrow and suffering. The Bible was the center of her demeanor during the captivity. Even though her experience was so painful, she thanked God for everything. In the work, she strongly showed the positive side of Christianity which make readers offer high value to the Christians. A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson is one of the important works in American Literature. It offers readers high values of history and Christian point of view. By reading material the story of Mary Rowlandson, we can clearly understand this period of American history. and also realize the virtue of Christianity.

Thursday, May 23, 2019


What is OPSEC and Why Do We Have It What is OPSEC? Its a butt of nurtureing little pieces of tuition that might grouped to stick aroundher to legislate the bigger picture. It is in addition defend critical information deemed mission essential for soldiery commanders. It is simply denying your adversary the information that they might need to harm you or the mission. The AR that covers OPSEC is AR 530-1 and goes over purposes, responsibilities, policy, procedures, training requirements, OPSEC review, assessment, survey, contract and subcontract requirements and special advance programs.The reasons why we have OPSEC is be beat any life-sustaining information that the op fleck empennage charter their hands on rotter give them an advantage on the strife field or operations. Those little pieces of information could show the enemy the full picture of what it is that we plan to execute. Most dont chi undersurfacee what is considered vital information. conceive of about it, w hat would you interchangeable to know about your enemy and how to infiltrate, interfere or stop their objective. How about where you atomic number 18 going, when you ar going, how are you moving, what equipment that you provide be exploitation and even what paths have you taken before.Even your units job crosstie layabout be a part of the information they gutter reach on. real identifying marks such as your unit patch, or any other unit/ battalion identifiers dissolve even give information. For instance the enemy is looking at the patch and can look up through Google and find out what unit you are with and keep open eyes and ears to see if they can get any information on what your purpose is and where you will be. Even taking pictures in legitimate places can give the enemy a layout of an area.Its not wise to take pictures of equipment, it would not be hard with the information high air to find out all they need to know about certain functions of our equipment and their weak spots as well. In this day in age we have the social media network that can also help the enemy principal and get information. How OPSEC affects family and social networking We all have friends and family that want to know what you are doing but there are only so many things that you can break them without violating OPSEC.You are not the only atomic number 53 who needs to visualise why there is OPSEC, your family needs to understand its importance as well. Any information you give them and they put out there can affect you and them. The military offers family members who are curious about OPSEC classes and briefs at the FRG meetings. They go over what it stands for and why its so important in the military. There are also links on the internet that explain and answers a lot of questions they whitethorn have.There is also a Facebook page that family members can go on, its called Army execution auspices. Your family has to understand that there is only so frequently you c an tell them and even what you do tell them they dont need to be telling others or posting it on Facebook. Without thinking they could accidently put the information out without knowing if the individual they told is the enemy or a spy. You know what they say keep your friends close and keep your enemies closer.The enemy thinks the same way and will do whatever it takes to get the information they need to plan and infiltrate our operations. Families are the biggest target for our enemies to infiltrate and get information. One more important thing to think about is the enemy could be anyone, American or even your family you never know. There are many reasons why we have OPSEC but not taking the proper measures can conduce in serious injury or death to personnel, damage to weapons systems, equipment and facilities, passage of sensitive technical schoolnologies and mission failure.The process of OPSEC There is a process to OPSEC as well the subjects that are covered are identificat ion of critical information, analysis of threats, analysis of vulnerabilities, assessment of risk, an application of appropriate OPSEC measures and assessment of insider knowledge. Identification of critical information is the process of identifying what information is needed by the enemy, not so much protecting ein truththing that is classified or sensitive unclassified, but protecting what is more vital and would be more useful to the enemy.Analysis of threats is the research and analysis of intelligence, counterintelligence and open source information on the likely enemies of a planned operation. Analysis of vulnerabilities is to examine each(prenominal) and every aspect of the planned operation and try to identify certain OPSEC indicators that could enunciate critical information and then compare those indicators with the enemy intelligence charm capabilities used in the previous actions that they have taken in the past.Assessment of risk is where they first analyze the vulne rabilities identified in the previous action and see what OPSEC measures can be taken to prevent the opportunity of the enemy getting information, and then those measures are selected for execution based upon a risk assessment done by the commander and staff. Application of appropriate OPSEC measures is when the command implements the OPSEC measures selected in the assessment of risk, action, or in the case of planned future operations and activities, which includes the measures in specific OPSEC plans.Assessment of Insider experience is assessing and ensuring employees, contractors, and key personnel having entrance to critical or sensitive information practice and maintain proper OPSEC measures by organizational security elements whether by collapse Assessment or Covert Assessment in order to evaluate the information being processed and / or handled on all levels of operation top executive (the employees/mid-level/senior management) and prevent unintended/intentional disclosur e. These are all important steps that are taken to implement those measures to use as soldiers.All this information that they gather and analyze gives us the understanding of what the enemy is looking, what they have done in the past and what they may plan in the future. We have briefs annually that go over such information that they gather and the measure to prevent them from happening again. We even sign a nondisclosure agreement aft(prenominal) we are briefed on what we are not supposed to do when we have information that is mission critical. Basically they go over the does and donts in this brief and we are bound in contract not to disclose any of this information to whom it doesnt concern.Later in this essay, you will know the consequences to violating the nondisclosure agreement. Indicators and Vulnerabilities There are other forms of analyzing ways that the enemy would get information and create weak spots in our operations or mission tasks, they are Indicators and Vulnerab ilities. Indicators, consists of five characteristics which are signatures, associations, profiles, contrasts and exposures. A signature can cause certain indicators to be identifi equal and stand out.If a signature is unique and stable, it reduces the unclear and uncertainty of a particular indicator and reduces the number of additional indicators that mustiness be observed in order to determine the significance. If the indicators signature is stable, meaning that the behavior is constant and repeated, an adversary may accurately cry future actions. By varying the pattern of behavior, the signatures stability can be interrupted and increase the uncertain information of an enemies observations. An association is the race that an indicator has to other information or activities.Adversarial Intelligence Analysts spend a considerable amount of time comparing current observations with past observations, which may divulge possible relationships. For example, an observer may note a pa rticular employee report to work after hours. Though previous observation, the Analyst is aware of that employees position as an on-call computer forensics analyst. Given the association between those two observations, the Adversarial Intelligence Analyst could conclude that the organization has suffered a computer breach of some sort.An association can also take the form of a pattern. For instance, if it is observed that we do a test fire on our weapons before rolling out the supply to go on mission, an analyst may be able to accurately predict these procedures. Lastly, an association can take the form of organizational patterns, particularly in military units. The analyst may be aware that a particular unit is comprised of Headquarters Company, a maintenance company and a transportation company.If one of these elements is detected, the presence of the others would be strongly suspected. A profile is the sum of multiple signatures, and what that means is when multiple signatures a re detected, the combination therein would be more or little unique to a particular mission or task. For instance, if signatures are detected that indicate that aircraft fueling capacities are in place, as well as air traffic control, personnel and weaponry, a profile can be compiled indicating future air-based operations.If a unique profile is observed, an analyst may be able to accurately determine which type of operation is in progress, minimizing the need for additional observation and analysis. Contrasts are any differences between the established pattern and current observations. Contrasts are the most reliable indicators because they depend on differences in established and repeated profiles, and need only to be observed rather than understood. A contrast can take many forms for instance leaving work at a different time or the presence of vehicles or aircraft that were not previously observed.When noting a difference, the analyst will attempt to determine if the change is is olated or widespread, if the change has occurred previously (and has a matching association), if anything significant has occurred since the change and what the change may represent. The exposure of an indicator refers to the length of time and the time frame in which the indicator is observed. If an indicator is allowed to be observed for a long period of time, it will be assimilated into the profile and be assigned a meaning. If an indicator is able to be observed for only a short period of time and does not repeat, it is less likely to attract attention.However, if the indicator is observed for short periods of time, but is repeated frequently, it will begin to be seen as a contrast to a normal profile. These can be found on OPSEC professionals. com. Vulnerabilities, is the information and indicators that can weak spots to infiltrate and disrupt the mission plans or operation. Finding and preventing the vulnerabilities can reduce the affect that it may have on missions and operat ions that are planned and executed. For instance, your path that you take to a given destinations, and the terrain were they could plant IEDs.If someone was to give out information as to where the mission was going and when, it could give the enemy the time to organize a plan of attack on that convoy or mission of operation. Convoy and Equipment security Convoy security is a very important part of our job and there are techniques that we have in the way we pull security and make ourselves less known to the enemy as well. For example, when we have to halt the convoy for complications that arise, we will turn off our lights to make ourselves less know. We also, put spaces between us to eliminate more damage in the event that we are hit with either small arms fire or an IED.Identifying marks on the vehicle is not permitted because it can be traced and monitored by the enemy and observe and predict the way we move and how we operate. These techniques that we have shouldnt be spoken to a nyone as well. If the enemy was to know this information it would give us an even more disadvantage in completing our mission. Even the classes that we take like (Crow, Puma, Crew, etc. ) should not be shared information, the enemy would love nothing more that to understand our equipment and the way it works.They will try to find the weakness in anything that we use to plan, secure, and complete our missions and tasks. Radio frequencies are some other very important part of information that could be very valuable to the enemy. With that information they could pretty much get just about anything that they would possible need to know to infiltrate us, harm us, equipment and the very mission itself. All this information and more is vital to our very purpose here and simply if the person to whom at anytime you are speaking with or if there are others around and they do not need to know dont say anything.One other thing that is important to remember there are a lot of DOD contractors ar ound that know and understand about OPSEC, and they are listening around you and will report this information that they hear. Even our battle drills we go over on how we respond and operate under certain conditions can be considered valuable information to the enemy, and something they could use against us. How to Conduct an Operations Security (OPSEC) Assessment OPSEC Assessments are conducted to evaluate an adversarys or competitors ability to access your critical information, intellectual property, proprietary information or personal information.OPSEC Assessments orderly benefit anyone desiring to protect information or assets from disclosure. Operations Security (OPSEC) Assessments enable brain wave to your predictable indicators, exploitable processes and procedures while presenting specific measures to counter potential vulnerabilities. Assessments can be conducted by internal representatives from each department or can be performed by external experts and typically run from 1-3 weeks.Step 1 Identify information critically important to the organization, mission, project or home intellectual property, mission details, plans, R&D, capabilities, degradations, key personnel deployment data, medical records, contracts, network schematics, etc. Step 2 Identify the relevant adversaries, competitors or criminals with both intent and capability to acquire your critical information. Step 3 From the adversarys, competitors, or thiefs perspective, identify potential vulnerabilities and means to gains access to results of step 1. Interview a representative sample of individual.Step 4 Assess the risk of each pic by its respective impact to mission accomplishment / performance if obtained Step 5 Generate / recommend specific measures that counter identified vulnerabilities. Prioritize and order relevant protection measures. Step 6 Evaluate measure effectiveness, adjust accordingly. This was reference at http//www. wikihow. com/Conduct-an-Operations-Security-%28Ops ec%29-Assessment There are many tips when conducting a Operations Security (OPSEC) Assessment here are a couple. Dont try to perform all analysis on your own, obtain threat data from the experts.The appeal of OPSEC money wise would be prohibitive to attempt to protect information that is already accessible to the public so focus on what you can protect than what is already publicly accessible. Even though 100% awareness of OPSEC is realistic, zero vulnerabilities are not. Your critical information list should not be secret and inconspicuously posted near PC monitors, phones, copiers, etc. You should keep your list to about ten items. Those aware of what to protect have a better chance of protecting sensitive information as opposed to those unaware of its value is a general rule.Regular assessments ensure your best protection. OPSEC often provides low cost solutions to high tech problems. Instead of a long drawn-out report on observations, findings and proposed counter measures can be formatted in a presentation template. To mitigate vulnerabilities you should include a plan of actions and milestones (POA&M) in the brief to decision makers. Consequences to violating OPSEC There are many consequences to violating the nondisclosure statement that all soldiers, NCOs and Officers are obligated to adhere and follow. This is a direct order from your chain of command.This statement informs you of the obligations and responsibilities concerning OPSEC procedures and consequences that will occur if violating this statement. OPSEC involves vital and important information on mission operations. This includes dates, times, cargo, number of personnel and vehicles, even the rout and destinations of missions. Violations of OPSEC can happen many different ways especially with current technology. Cellular phones are the easiest and most convenient method of use getting and giving information. However, another method would be the internet.People who make random posts on facebook or other forms of social media pages or write blogs about things they do in combat areas reveal types of information without realizing what they have done. Revealing this type of information, whether it was intentional or not can have severe consequences from the force Judicial System. These consequences include UCMJ, Article 15, Military Court Martial, and separation from the military and loss of all VA benefits. Another and more substantial result of the violations is the loss of peoples lives because the enemy found this information from unsecured communication networks.The first course of punishment is an Article 15 of the UCMJ. A Soldier will receive the maximum punishment from an Article 15. Which would be 45 days extra duty, 45 days of restriction, loss of pay and reduction of rank. If the information the Soldier revealed results in the convoy getting ambushed and Soldiers die, that Soldier may have to appear before a Military Court for a Court Martial Hearing. If the Court s finds the Soldier guilty of the charges they have been accused of. This will result in a Dishonorable Separation from the Military.A Dishonorable Separation from the Military may result in future difficulties in civilian life after you are released from the Military. The main problem might be trying to attain a civilian job. When employers see a dishonorable discharge from the military emolument and the reasons to which you obtained this action. They will be less likely to employ such a person who they cant trust in. Along with the dishonorable discharge, you will loss all benefits and entitlements. The Bureau of Veteran affairs will also give soldiers loans to buy a house or brand new vehicle.This will also be taken from, because due to the soldiers indiscretion to reveal vital information and risk the lives of their fellow comrades. References Operation Security on Wikipedia http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Operations_security Operation Security AR 530-1 www. fas. org/irp/doddir/a rmy/ar530-1. pdf OPSEC Indicators www. opsecprofessionals. org/articles/indicators. htm How to Conduct an Operations Security (Opsec) Assessment http//www. wikihow. com/Conduct-an-Operations-Security-%28Opsec%29-Assessment

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

American Nightmare Essay

Lets face it, the economy is in a horrible condition and it foot be seen all across the nation. Education, employment, and balancing life is an everyday struggle for most Americans during these hard time. Citizens are stuck in their social class and can not apparent motion up, instead they might even fall below their current standard of living. Immigrants are still migrating to this once marvelous country, but their chances of success are sooner slim. Job availability is steadily decreasing, and people are not making enough income to live a decent life.The truth is, the American ideate is dead. The dream everyone of this nation hoped to achieved has ultimately become a nightmare. The main reasons why the dream is dead is because of the deteriorating economy, no governingal support, and lack of individualism. A dollar today is no longer what it used to be in the aboriginal years of America. Everyone needs money, there is no doubt about that. A person without money is a typically seen as worthless and can not afford to live a decent life. The problem is, all the necessities we need in life are be feeler expensive.It has become very difficult for many to citizens to earn enough to live their life. On a personal basis, my family was forced to put our house on foreclosure. The cost of maintaining a house has become quite expensive. Thousands of people are losing their homes and forced to move into less costly homes. This is seen on the internet, T. V, and even in our neighborhoods. well-nigh separate example of the economy breaking knock off is our nations gas prices. Gas prices are steadily rising, and it has become difficult for many Americans to receive that large tank of gas.So it begs the question, where does society get the money to accept these things off? In other words, a majority of the nation can not pay off their dues. There are less jobs available to the public which equals less money around. Most citizens are forced to live their lives on a cast down minimal wage budget. America should not be in a situation in this, the government should help stabilize the economy. The government which is composed of officials, constabulary makers, and congress who created this once prosperous nation. However, where are they now?The government seems to be worried about their own campaigns are affairs outside of the US. They do not seem to have any interest in fixing this nations problems and help citizens achieve their dreams and goals. Most especially in broken down ghetto neighborhoods , where governmental help is needed the most. The nation must be equally supported in all cities, to result in a stable government system. An excerpt from When Work Disappears by William Julius Wilson describes the changed environment of a once great and prosperous city.When I walked down 63rd street when I was younger, everything you wanted was there. But know, coming back as an adult with my child, those resources are just gone, completely And hou sing, everybody has moved, there are vacant lots everywhere (199). If the government took time to reconstruct the foundations of cities wish well these, the motivation to follow the dream would live on. The government needs to focus on current affairs and problems in the nation, then focus on other tribulations in different countries. Environments like the one describe, demoralizes the citizens making them ultimately give up hope.However, within these depressing times the American dream applies to one person, yourself. The American dream is created by what a persons belief, goals, and dreams are. But, can a person achieve their dream if they have no palpate of opendom or individualism in this nation? There are numerous restrictions on the common man, for us to truly express or goals and aspirations. The people of this nation can not pursue anything, if they are chained down by society. This statement is clearly evident is a quote in an article by an unnamed writer, Corpus Chrsti Caller Times.The first part of the American stargaze is a country where any of us is free to think, believe, say and do anything we want (within some limits) without worrying about being arrested and jailed by government agents(Corpus). The government needs to be more lenient if a persons free speech and ideals. If the government always stops us from reaching our goals, we will never be able to. There must be a sense of balance between the control and freedom on each individual in this nation. The American dream once thought to be attainable during the early years of Americans foundation, is no longer or very difficult to attain in these day and age.These problems are Due to the fact of the short(p) economy, unsupported government, and lack of individuality. All these problems, and much more within the system of the United States destroy the very ideals of the American Dream. The reality of attaining the so called American Dream has become difficult. To most Americans the will to live life anymore has turned into a nightmare. The constant struggles and tribulations thousands of Americans face in this current era. America can experience the dream, only if the heart of American changes.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Representation in “To kill a mockingbird” Essay

MockingbirdThe mockingbird represents innocence. Like hunters who kill mockingbirds for sport, people kill innocence, or other people who are innocent, without thinking about what they are doing. genus Atticus stands firm in his defense of innocence and urges his children not to shoot mockingbirds both literally and figuratively. The mockingbird motif arises quaternion convictions during To Kill a Mockingbird. First, when Atticus gives Jem and discoverer air guns for Christmas and instructs them not to kill mockingbirds. Second, when B.B. Underwood writes about tom turkey Robinsons demise in his column. Third, a mockingbird hums right before Bob Ewell attacks Jem and Scout. Finally, Scout agrees with Atticus that prosecuting Boo for Ewells murder would be like killing a mockingbird.Atticus military chaplain of Jem and Scout, Atticus Finch sits on the Alabama State Legislature and acts as Maycombs leading attorney. The epitome of moral character, Atticus teaches his children a nd his community how to stand up for adepts beliefs in the face of prejudice and ignorance by defending a calamitous man, Tom Robinson, wrongfully accused of raping a white woman. Having lost his married woman when Scout was two old age old, Atticus devotes himself to his children despite criticism from family and neighbors who think his children lack discipline and proper guidance. Atticus stands as one of literatures strongest and roughly positive go figures. As one of the most prominent citizens in Maycomb during the Great Depression, Atticus is relatively well off in a time of widespread poverty.Because of his penetrating in make outigence, calm wisdom, and exemplary behavior, Atticus is respected by everyone, including the very poor. He functions as the moral backbone of Maycomb, a mortal to whom others turn in times of doubt and trouble. But the conscience that makes him so admirable ultimately causes his falling out with the people of Maycomb. Unable to abide the towns hips comfortable ingrained racial prejudice, he agrees to defend Tom Robinson, a black man. Atticuss action makes him the object of scorn in Maycomb, but he is simply too impressive a figure to be scorned for long. later on the trial, he run intoms destined to be held in the alike(p) high regard as before. Atticus practices the ethic of sympathy and understanding that he preaches to Scout and Jem and never holds a grudge against the people of Maycomb. Despite their pachydermic indifference to racial inequality, Atticus sees much to extol in them.Herecognizes that people have both good and bad qualities, and he is determined to admire the good while understanding and forgiving the bad. Atticus passes this great moral lesson on to Scoutthis perspective protects the innocent from being destroyed by adjoin with evil. Ironically, though Atticus is a heroic figure in the novel and a respected man in Maycomb, neither Jem nor Scout consciously idolizes him at the beginning of the nove l. Both are embarrassed that he is older than other fathers and that he doesnt hunt or fish. But Atticuss wise parenting, which he sums up in Chapter 30 by saying, Before Jem looks at anyone else he looks at me, and Ive tried to live so I sens look squarely back at him, ultimately wins their respect. By the end of the novel, Jem, in particular, is fiercely devoted to Atticus (Scout, still a little girl, loves him uncritically). though his childrens attitude toward him evolves, Atticus is characterized throughout the book by his absolute consistency. He stands rigidly committed to justice and thoughtfully willing to view matters from the perspectives of others.He does not develop in the novel but retains these qualities in equal measure, making him the novels moral guide and voice of conscience. atticuss wisdom, Scout learns that though humankindity has a great capacity for evil, it also has a great capacity for good, and that the evil can often be justify if one approaches other s with an outlook of sympathy and understanding. Atticus Finch Scout and Jems father, a lawyer in Maycomb descended from an old local family. A widower with a dry out sense of humor, Atticus has instilled in his children his strong sense of morality and justice. He is one of the few residents of Maycomb committed to racial equality.When he agrees to defend Tom Robinson, a black man charged with raping a white woman, he exposes himself and his family to the anger of the white community. With his strongly held convictions, wisdom, and empathy, Atticus functions as the novels moral backbone. The father of Scout and Jem, Atticus is a lawyer and an extremely morally upright man who strives to deal with everyone fairly. Atticus is sometimes overly optimistic, but his unshakable look forward to in mankind and self-created role as the town do-gooder sustain him. Atticus wife died when Scout was very small, and he has raised his children only with the assist of Calpurnia, his black house keeper and cook.QuotationI return when my daddy gave me that gun. He told me that I should never point it at anything in the house and that hed quite a Id shoot at tin cans in the backyard. But he said that sooner or later he supposed the temptation to go after birds would be too much, and that I could shoot all the blue jays I wanted if I could hit em but to remember it was a sin to kill a mockingbird. Well, I reckon because mockingbirds put one overt do anything but make music for us to enjoy. They dont eat peoples gardens, dont nest in the corncrib, they dont do one thing but just sing their hearts out for us.Atticuss advice to Scout deals with his philosophy about tolerance, and how if you try and put yourself in another persons place, one king better understand their reasoning. The title of To Kill a Mockingbird has very little literal connection to the plot, but it carries a great deal of emblematical weight in the book. In this story of innocents destroyed by evil, the mockingbird keep abreasts to represent the idea of innocence. Thus, to kill a mockingbird is to destroy innocence. Throughout the book, a number of characters (Jem, Tom Robinson, Dill, Boo Radley, Mr. Raymond) can be identified as mockingbirdsinnocents who have been injured or destroyed through contact with evil. This connection between the novels title and its main theme is made explicit several times in the novel after Tom Robinson is shot, Mr. Underwood compares his death to the senseless slaughter of songbirds, and at the end of the book Scout thinks that hurting Boo Radley would be like shootin a mockingbird.Most important, Miss Maudie explains to Scout Mockingbirds dont do one thing but . . . sing their hearts out for us. Thats why its a sin to kill a mockingbird. That Jem and Scouts last name is Finch (another type of small bird) indicates that they are particularly vulnerable in the racist world of Maycomb, which often treats the fragile innocence of childhood harshly. His stern but fair attitude toward Jem and Scout reaches into the courtroom as well. He politely proves that Bob Ewell is a liar he respectfully questions Mayella about her role in Toms crisis.One of the things that his longtime friend Miss Maudie admires about him is that Atticus Finch is the same in his house as he is on the public streets. The only time he seriously lectures his children is on the evils of taking advantage of those less fortunate or less educated, aphilosophy he carries into the animal world by his refusal to hunt. And although most of the town readily pins the label trash on other people, Atticus reserves that line for those people who unfairly exploit others.Atticus believes in justice and the justice system. He doesnt like criminal law, yet he accepts the appointment to Tom Robinsons case. He knows before he begins that hes going to lose this case, but that doesnt stop him from giving Tom the strongest defense he possibly can. And, importantly, Atticus doesnt put so much effort into Toms case because hes an African American, but because he is innocent. Atticus feels that the justice system should be color blind, and he defends Tom as an innocent man, not a man of color. Our first-person narrator is Scout Finch, who is quintette when the story begins and eight when it ends. From the first chapter, though, its clear that Scout is remembering and narrating these events much later after all, the second paragraph of the novel begins, When enough years had gone by to enable us to look back on them, we sometimes discussed the events leading to Jems accident (1.2).For the most part, Scout recounts the events from her childhood perspective, as she understood them at the time, rather than imposing an adult commentary. This makes the narrative perspective a nave one often we get descriptions of events just as she experiences them, without commentary on what they mean, or a commentary that is humorously innocent. But having the adult perspective be there in the background, even if it isnt in play for most of the narration, means it can pop out when its needed to point out important things that the narrator realizes only later, to make sure that the reader sees them too.The strongest broker of style is Lees talent for narration, called tactile brilliance. Harper Lee has a remarkable gift of story-telling. Her art is visual, and with cinematographic fluidity and subtlety we see a scene melting into another scene without jolts of transition. Lee combines the narrators voice of a child observing her surroundings with a full-grown womans reflecting on her childhood, using the ambiguity of this voice combined withthe narrative technique of flashback to play intricately with perspectives. This narrative method allows Lee to tell a delightfully deceptive story that mixes the simplicity of childhood observation with adult situations complicated by hidden motivations and unquestioned tradition.However, at times the mix causes reviewe rs to question Scouts preternatural vocabulary and depth of understanding. Lee uses parody, satire, and irony effectively by using a childs perspective. After Dill promises to marry her, then spends too much time with Jem, Scout reasons the best way to get him to pay attention to her is to beat him up, which she does several times. Scouts first day in school is a satirical treatment of education her teacher says she must undo the damage Atticus has molded in teaching her to read and write, and forbids Atticus from teaching her further. Lee treats the most unfunny situations with irony, however, as Jem and Scout try to understand how Maycomb embraces racism and still tries truly to remain a decent society. Satire and irony are used to such an extent. Scout narrates the story herself, looking back in retrospect an unspecified number of years after the events of the novel take place.POINT OF VIEW Scout narrates in the first person, telling what she saw and heard at the time and augme nting this narration with thoughts and assessments of her experiences in retrospect. Although she is by no means an omniscient narrator, she has matured considerably over the intervening years and often implicitly and humorously comments on the navet she displayed in her thoughts and actions as a young girl. Scout mostly tells of her own thoughts but also devotes considerable time to recounting and analyzing Jems thoughts and actions.TONE Childlike, humorous, nostalgic, innocent as the novel progresses, increasingly dark, foreboding, and critical of societyMAJOR CONFLICT The childhood innocence with which Scout and Jem begin the novel is imperil by numerous incidents that expose the evil side of human nature, most notably the guilty verdict in Tom Robinsons trial and the vindictiveness of Bob Ewell. As the novel progresses, Scout and Jem struggle to maintain faith in the human capacity for good in light of these recurringinstances of human evil.RISING ACTION Scout, Jem, and Dil l become fascinated with their mysterious neighbor Boo Radley and have an escalating series of encounters with him. Meanwhile, Atticus is assigned to defend a black man, Tom Robinson against the spurious rape charges Bob Ewell has brought against him. Watching the trial, Scout, and especially Jem, cannot understand how a jury could possibly convict Tom Robinson based on the Ewells all the way fabricated story.CLIMAX Despite Atticuss capable and impassioned defense, the jury finds Tom Robinson guilty. The verdict forces Scout and Jem to confront the fact that the morals Atticus has taught them cannot always be reconciled with the reality of the world and the evils of human nature.FALLING ACTION When word spreads that Tom Robinson has been shot while trying to escape from prison, Jem struggles to come to terms with the injustice of the trial and of Tom Robinsons fate. After making a variety of threats against Atticus and others connected with the trial, Bob Ewell assaults Scout and Jem as they notch home one night, but Boo Radley saves the children and fatally stabs Ewell. The sheriff, knowing that Boo, like Tom Robinson, would be misunderstood and likely convicted in a trial, protects Boo by saying that Ewell tripped and fell on his own knife. After sitting and talking with Scout briefly, Boo retreats into his house, and Scout never sees him again.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Pit Bulls Are Not Aggressive Essay

Just sit there for a second, close your eyes, and visualize this a pup no older than 5 months in the pouring rain, freezing, shivering, on your door step. You want to help but you dont throw do exactly how to, you just earn almost in tears as this puppy stays there very gloom and soakage wet. You fin entirelyy decide to take a leap of chance and help the puppy, you go outside and the puppy gently lifts his flip toward you and you notice its a pit bull. He is so skinny, starved, and parched, with the only involvement to drink being muddy rain water. You slowly move closer and pet him, he lays his head on your leg, so you pick him up gently in your arms and you take him inside. When you set him knock down you notice your arms be covered in blood, when you look down at him you see he has cuts on his legs, neck, and stomach.You start cleaning him up and cleaning his wounds there not deadly but they are heart breaking. He has no collar or tags, but you decide to keep him. You call him Bentley, and Bentley becomes your world, and if it wasnt for you he would have n eer been saved. And if it wasnt for him, you wouldnt have the heart to believe that not all pit bulls are aggressive. When you see a agree bull, what is the inaugural thing that goes through your theme? For some, it is a sense of fear and for others it is the thought that this cross is misunderstood. Have you ever stopped and thought about if the bodily cavity bull breed is really a vicious breed, or are they just misinterpreted due to the nature that others have given them along with the many myths that are attached to them? What about the owners of these precious animals?Do you ever think that they are the reason that their Pit bull may be a vicious chase after? Many times people speculate too much when it comes to the Pit bull breed. Instead of winning the time to learn about them, they would much rather allow the myths and things they hear through the media to set their mind that the Pi t bull breed is a vicious breed. Many people do not know the history behind the Pit bull or where their reputation comes from. Too often this particular breed becomes a victim for something that they have no control over. Its time to find the facts and finally make a decision based off of the facts that we find.Pit jacks can be as gentle as any other breed of dog, but due to myths and lack of knowledge from people the Pit Bull breed has been ruined and stereotyped. American Pit Bull Terriers were first introduced during macrocosm War I and World War II. The job of the Pit Bull was to deliver messages back and forth across the battlefield. Pit Bulls were first bred to bait bulls and bears as a sport back in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries, but soon became more commonly used as house pets due to their friendliness towards people. This thence should open up your eyes to them not really being an aggressive breed simply because they became more commonly used as pets. Anot her fact about the history of the Pit Bull is the Pit Bull.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Social Work Law

This assignment involves a grimace study where Ralph, a fourteen year old(a) boy, is currently in foster cargon be designer his mformer(a) Kerry, felt she was unable to control him due to his behaviour. However, Kerry has at a time expressed that she is unhappy with this foster placement and has requested that her son be returned to live with her and his dickens junior brothers. The scenario becomes more complex owing to the fact that Ralph has disclosed that his mother had regularly hit him with a go stick. In this essay I provide seek to consider the main practice issues raised by the scenario of the case study.Using the materials provided indoors the course along with my own nonrecreational experience, I will strategy relevant legislation whilst demonstrating the significance it has on the assessment and any subsequent intervention that may be beard in the given situation division 1 of the Children Act 1989 clearly states When a judgeship determines any question with respect to (a) the upbringing or a tiddler or (b) the administration of a childs property or the application of any income arising from it, the childs wellbeing sh only be the apostrophizes paramount consideration. s. 1(1) This reflects the kind work professionals prime concern. Bearing this in mind, as the social worker involved in this case study, I would initially expect to see whether any of the children involved were at imminent essay of of import suffering. The support and protection of children can non be achieved by a single agency. Every service has to play its part. All staff moldiness maintain fixed upon them the clear expectation that at that place primary responsibility is to the child and his or her family. (DH and Home Office, 2003, paras 17. 92-17. 93)The Children Act 2004 obliges all agencies that come into contact working with children must sh atomic number 18 information and work together to safety deviceguard the welfare of children. My primary ta sk would be to arrange a safeguarding strategy meeting. This would facilitate the sharing of information amid professionals whilst also determining the most appropriate course of action to take next. Those go toing the meeting would involve the area Child Protection Officer, an education professional (such as the appointed Child Protection teacher), the police, a health professional (such as the schooling nurse) and the social worker.Other agencies may also be asked to attend such as the youth offending team or CAMHS (Children and adolescent mental health service). At the meeting, the professionals will discuss the trounce response to the allegations and the extent of risk that is posed towards the three children involved. There are several different options that can be decided. After careful consideration and agreement, it might be the worldwide consensus that no further action is penuryed and the case will be subsequently dropped.However with this case study on that point is an allegation of physical yell which would suggest the family would be in call for of almostwhat kind of assistance, thus Ralph may be recognised as a child in need. character 17 of the Children Act 1989 states a child is in need if he/she is improbable to achieve or maintain a reasonable standard of health or development. s. 17 (a). Ralph has non been attending school regularly. Subsequently this will lead to him falling behind and not developing educationally. Ralph has also started to drink intoxicant and has also taken to staying out late, on unrivalled occasion not returning folk until the interest day.This behaviour obviously poses a risk to his health nevertheless, it could also lead to a risk of significant harm. The threshold to identify when a need becomes a risk can vary depending on the professional making that assessment. Choosing to bring professionals together to a strategy meeting will ensure that the threshold is one that is safe and appropriate. The a llegation from Ralph about his mother hitting him with a stick which was hard enough to cause severe bruising is without doubt a concerning factor. The strategy meeting would need to assess whether Ralph and/or his siblings were children in need (s 17) or whether there were rounds for a child protection enquiry. The Children Act 1989, element 47 states that the topical anesthetic Authority must investigate if it has reasonable cause to suspect that a child is suffering significant harm. This is also realizen as a section 47 enquiry. Ralph says he has been the victim of physical abuse and that this was a reoccurring act. As a social worker I would have to investigate this further. The questions I would requirement to find answers to would include Are Ralphs siblings at risk from experiencing similar physical abuse? Is Ralph at risk of suffering from physical abuse if he returns home to his mother?I would also want to look further into the causes behind Ralphs truancy and why he h as started to engage in anti-social behaviour. Could this be a result of a division in his relationship with his mother? Or are there problems with the home environment? When Ralph disclosed that his mother hit him with a stick, he said that he did not want anyone else to know. With this we encounter a conflict of what Ralph wishes and the professional duty of the worker. When working with young people it is chief(prenominal) to make sure that they are aware of and understand the agencys confidentiality policy.As a social worker I would explain to Ralph, within his level of understanding, that I will have to record some of the information he shares with me. However if he shares information that suggests that himself or someone else could be at risk of harm then this information will have to be shared appropriately and if required acted upon. As the social worker involved with this case, I would want to carry out an assessment before Ralph returns home to his Mother. However, Ralph is in foster care voluntarily which means that his mother can return him home as she wishes.Under section 20 of the Children Act 1989, any person who has parental responsibility for a child may at any time remove the child from accommodation provided by or on behalf of the Local Authority under this section s. 20 (8) . Nonetheless, section 20 would be the most desired option as it would be the least oppressive way to accommodate the young person magic spell the assessment takes place. This would require cooperation from Kerry, Ralphs mother. I would visit Kerry and try to explain the situation and the concerns that I and the other professionals had. This is credibly to have a evastating impact on Kerry so this must be done in a sensitive way. The local authority is under obligation to work in partnership with the families of children in need or at risk. Sections 22 and 61 of the Children Act 1989 require local authorities and instinctive organisations to consult, where reasonab ly possible, with the child and the parents before making any decision in relation to the child (Block 3, p103). out front considering keeping Ralph in foster care, I would want to explore other options of mansion. The case study does not mention Ralphs birth father or whether he currently has a relationship with him.This would need to be investigated. There may also be other relatives who might be in a position to look after Ralph, for example the possibility of living with Grandparents, Aunts and Uncles would be worth exploring. It may also be necessary to accommodate George and Dan while the assessment takes place. However, unlike Ralph, they go forth to have a relationship with their father, surface-to-air missile. Sam will have joint parental responsibility for George and Dan that as he is not the birth father for Ralph, he will not automatically have parental responsibility for him.However, he may obtain parental responsibility by obtaining an order from the court, or thro ugh a formal parental responsibility agreement with Kerry. Alternatively, Sam could apply for a residence order which settles the arrangements to be made as to the person with whom a child lives. There are two categories of applicant, those who can apply as of right and those who require leave of court (CA 1989, s. 8). As Ralph lived with his mother and Sam for six years, Sam could apply as of right. With all this said, a further initial assessment would need to be done on Sam prior to Ralph taking up residence with his step-father.Furthermore, it is very unlikely that Ralph would want to live with Sam, given his feelings that are stated in the case study. As with the parents being include in decision making in relation to the child, so must the child himself. As antecedently mentioned, the less oppressive option would be for Ralph to stay with a family member or to keep Ralph in his foster placement voluntarily. This would need to be with agreement from Kerry. However, in the event of Kerry not agreeing, there are other less favourable options to consider.The local authority may apply to the court for a section 31 or section 38 orders under the Children Act 1989. A section 31 court order can be given on the grounds that the child involved is suffering or likely to suffer significant harm due to the care being given to him, or likely to be given to him, or the child being beyond parental control s. 31(2). In Ralphs case I feel if a court order was required to accommodate him, a Section 38 would be more appropriate. An Interim care order (S. 38) granted by the court will give the local authority a period of time, for up to eight weeks, to investigate the childs circumstances s. 8(4) and (5). This would allow time to carry out an assessment on the necessarily of the family to identify if it is safe for Ralph to return home and to assess if there are any services that the family require to assist with the breakdown of the relationship. Before issuing a section 3 1 or 38 court order, the court must take into account some factors. Taking the childs welfare as the paramount consideration, there should be a presumption that there is no order unless making one would be expose for the child. This is also known as the no order principle.Both of these court orders also require a welfare checklist. The welfare checklist considers a range of factors before discharging an order including The wishes of the child any physical, excited and educational needs age, sex and any other characteristics that may be relevant any harm suffered or at risk of suffering and the capability of the parents at meeting the childs needs ACA 2002, s1 (40). As a social worker I will be striving to achieve the best possible outcomes for the children I work with.The white paper, Every Child Matters identifies five areas of outcome be health stay safe enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and achieve economic wellbeing. (DfES, 2004) To summate my hypothetical invol vement with this case study, as a social work professional working within social work legislation I would firstly take the welfare of the child or children as my primary consideration. When assessing the circumstances of the family and intervening in such a case, I would do so in a way that was anti-oppressive, which would mean using the least intrusive means of power available.It would require me to be non-judgemental, treating each individual with respect in line with article 8 of the European Convention of merciful Rights. I would ensure to work in a professional manner at all times, persistent by the GSCC code of practice (Codes of Practice, 2002). I would work closely with professionals, sharing information to those who need to know only. I would strive to achieve the best possible of the five outcomes for children and young people I would continuously adhere to lawful policies whilst continually reflecting and evaluating my own practice.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Data Analysis And Discussion Science Fair

cyclops died on day septenary in trial two. In a pH of five the Daphnia survived for half dozen day s In trial one and six days in trial two. Len the pH of twelve the Daphnia survived for five days in trial one and in trial two the Daphnia survived for six days. The Daphnia survived less than a week under the strong acids and bases because Daphnia can easily conk stressed under unalike conditions like t he pHs.The water tanks had an increase in Compounds that realize H+ ions in the water ankhs (acids pH of three and five) and an increase Compounds that form OH ions (basis pH of twelve) as our classed has intentional about this in the biochemistry unit. The reason why battalion would care about our data results and experiment is t hat the Daphnia and the the different pHs are just a representation of what can happen in the real world as aquatic habitats and ecosystems can be critically impacted as different forms Of acids, such as acidic rain and bases and can kill not just Da phnia besides also other aquatic organism due to human activity.As w as inform people how vital pH can affect an entire habitat and even ecosystem Our hypothesis was valid because we prove that testing Daphnia in a strong pH (three and five) and a strong acid (twelve) the choice rate of the Daphnia would drop, which did as the Daphnia continued to day from day to day as the e acids and bases caused it harm. The relationship between the Daphnia and the level of independent variable was seen as we put the Daphnia in different pHs and saw that died in different WA

Personality Case Study Essay

Personality underside be defined as the characteristic ways of thinking, feeling and acting that make a soulfulness an item-by-item (Fletcher & Garton, 2007). There atomic number 18 a number of different disposition theories that aim to explain an privates personality, such as the Learning supposition studied by B. F muleteer and the quality system studied by Cost and McCrae. By examining these personality theories in relation to a fussy carapace study, it is possible to understand how an individuals personality is influenced and how it develops.An example of a personality skid study is that of Kate, a 20 year old university student. She is described as kind, caring and loyal and prefers watch movies and indication rather than going out to a party. Kate works hard studying psychology at university and volunteers to help children with autism. Kate has a strong relationship with her family and isnt expected to contribute to household expenses. By examining the case stud y of Kate through the Learning and Trait personality theories, it is possible to have a greater rationality of Kates personality characteristics.The Learning conjecture of personality is one theory that can be apply to examine an individuals personality. One of the most influential theorists in this area was B. F Skinner who believed behaviour people think reflects personality is simply behaviour that has been learnt from past experiences with the world (Fletcher & Garton, 2007). The theorists of the learning theory basically believe that if a persons behaviour is positively rewarded, they are more liable(predicate) to repeat the action. However, if their behaviour was punished, it is less likely to happen again.This theory has been criticised for being too simplistic by not taking into account a persons genetics and factors other than a persons environment (such as thought processes, beliefs and motivation) that can influence their personality. Another argument is that personal ity populate of more than just behaviour. However, the learning theory is still a very influential personality theory and Skinners findings are still widely used as the basis for behaviour fitting techniques. In relation to the case study of Kate, Skinner would argue that Kates personality and behaviour is a result of both reward and punishment as a child.For example, she works hard in her studies to contact high results. It is possible that when she was younger, Kates parents rewarded her for achieving sound at school or punished her for receiving a unstable result. Skinner would argue that Kate demonstrates a solid work ethic because she was rewarded for similar behaviour earlier in her life. Another theory of personality that is commonly used is the Trait theory, studied by Costa and McCrae. This theory suggests there a five main dimensions of personality. These are extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness.An individuals personal ity is a combination of high and low ratings in each of these dimensions. This theory claims that all these personality traits are stable and enduring. Some criticisms are that this theory isnt specific enough as to how much of an individuals personality is a result of genetics or environment. Also, this theory does consider unconscious thoughts and processes that may influence a persons behaviour. The Trait theory is however a widely pass judgment personality theory which has been the basis for many studies and research. Costa and McCraes trait theory can be applied to the case study of Kate.She is described as being kind, caring and loyal. Kate also prefers watching movies and reading rather than going out. In terms of the Trait theory, Kate would be described as being introverted, conscientious, hard-working and well organised. The Trait Theory and the Learning theory are two very different understandings of personality, both with their get contributions and limitations, but bo th are relevant and useful when trying to understand an individuals personality. for each one theory is applicable to the case study of Kate in attempting to examine her personality type.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Alienation and Isolation in The Metamorphosis Essay

The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka is a look on how alienation and isolation begin and develop in a nightclub by employing the characters in his novella as a representation of edict as a whole. Using Gregors double-decker to leaven the existence of isolation and alienation of a soulfulness, Gregor as the person existence dislocated and the inhabitants of the Samsa home base as the other members of connection, Kafka creates an encumbranceive model to represent the hierarchic completelyy structured effect of isolationism and alienation in society on a larger scale.Kafka uses the company Gregor is forced to take on for to illustrate the hierarchical effect of isolation and alienation, where the initiation of isolationism begins at the top of the power structure and thus creates a ripple effect mastered through the rest of society. The manager of the company that Gregor must work for due to a family debt is the representative Kafka chooses to demonstrate the around important person in the hierarchy. By waking up as an insect and being late for work, Gregor has broken his conformity to the parameters of what is tolerated by the company, so the manager himself comes to deal with the issue since such component can only be entrusted to the intelligence of the manager (Kafka, 13). This, as well as how the family treats the manager as nicely as possible when he arrives demonstrates the enormousness of the managers decisions and their respect for authority.Further demonstrating the importance of his decisions, the manager is the first to react to Gregors transformation by threatening, your position is not at all the most secure (17) when Gregor will not open his door. This shows that he has the ability to completely disrupt Gregors place in the hierarchy and in doing so, isolate and alienate him from the rest of society. The manager remarks, that was an animals voice (20) when Gregor speaks, which alienates Gregor from humanity and reacts strongly to the si ght of Gregor by pressing his hand against his open mouth and lamentable back slowly (23). After firing Gregor, the manager flees the building which causes the initiation of Gregors isolation since work was the most important and most time consuming thing in his life. This shows that as with society in general, the person in charge holds tremendous influence over the rest of the population and is capable of initiating the belief that a person must be isolated.Just because the figure in power decrees that a person is not a good member of society and should be isolated, however, does not mean that all members of society react the same way. the spectrum of views that members of society take against those who have been isolated is sh admit through Kafkas portrayal of the Samsa familys reaction to his transformation. Gregors father represents those who respect authority and immediately agree with those higher in the hierarchy and unquestioningly aid in the isolation process. He wears a blue uniform with gold buttons (62) counterbalance when he is at home, asleep on a chair in the living room which demonstrates the look upon he places on the system. This is also illustrated as soon as the manager reacts to Gregors deviation from prevalent when Mr. Samsa begins to drive Gregor back into his room by waving the cane and the newspaper (29). Other members of the family, however, react differently to the situation.Grete is the closest to Gregor and is the most sympathetic to him immediately after his transformation by placing milk in his room, which was his popular drink and which his sister had currently placed there for that reason (34). Her reaction to Gregors isolation demonstrates the diametral of Mr. Samsas by being as considerate as he is forceful in Gregors alienation. Her relationship with Gregor demonstrates how in society, those who know the person being isolated before its initiation be most likely to resist helping to enforce the isolation. However, Kafka understands that people are very dynamic and often reassign their opinions. Grete undergoes a change in perspective to such a degree that by the end of the novella it is she who declares, we must get rid of it (84). This change in perspective shows how Kafka believes that members of society often stop sympathizing with the isolated group when it becomes inconvenient for them to continue doing so. Gregors mother reacts in an initial manner somewhere among the father and sister since when first seeing him she went two standards toward Gregor and collapsed right in the middle of her skirts (23).These unconnected desires continue through the novella, such as when Mr. Samsa tries to kill Gregor, she begged him to spare Gregors life (65) but at the same time she is repulsed by him. This illustrates how she wants to help him and tries to think of him the same way she did before his transformation, yet is otiose to. This resembles the idealists in society who theoretically suppor t the alien person but often succumb to sociable pressures when they are forced to face the problem. These three reactions to Gregors transformation as a result of the initiation of his isolation by the manager demonstrate the spectrum of reactions. From the immediate acceptance of the hierarchy represented by Mr. Samsa, to the truthful compassion of Grete and the idealism of Mrs. Samsa, Kafka shows how a wide variety of reactions is expected from society, and how people often change their opinions. as well as to how social pressures affect his mother, Gregor is also convinced through his respect for authority that he deserves the isolation enforce on him by society. He believes those preceding(prenominal) him in the hierarchy to such an extent that he in the end reaches the conclusion that he would be break-dance off dead that to have his family suffering because of his presence. Like his father, Gregor has a strong respect for authority and served in the military until his f ather, who is an positive figure in his life, needed financial help so he became almost overnight, a traveling salesman, who naturally had entirely different possibilities for earning property () which could be set out on the table at home in front of his astound and delighted family (43). Gregors decision to help his family pay off their debt without thinking of the effect it would have on his own happiness or considering refusing shows how firmly he is entrenched in the hierarchical system.The belief that authoritative figures are always correct leads him to think that since society dictates that he is worthless and deserves isolation, he would be better off dead than a burden to society. This is shown after Grete and Mr. Samsa decide that they want him gone, but Gregors own thought that he had to disappear was, if possible, steady more decisive than his sisters (89). He overhears his family bemoaning their misfortune and since they are above him on the hierarchical structure , Gregor believes that he has to die in order to spare them the trouble of having to deal with him. This illustrates how Kafka believes that society is so dependent on a hierarchical structure and the guidance from authoritative figures that they cannot think for themselves and even the person who is isolated may still respect and follow those higher in the hierarchy. This is the final step in the transmission of an idea through a social hierarchy whereby everyone believes that a person is lesser and should not exist, including the alienated person themselves.The Metamorphosis comes together to show the hierarchical pattern Kafka believes a society follows in regard to isolation and alienation. He uses the manager of the company Gregor works for to model the instigation of isolationism, which in society is determined by the most important person in the hierarchy. Gregors family represents society as a whole and is used to illustrate the variety of reactions the people in society aft er they are told who to alienate. These reactions range from immediate, unquestioning agreement with those higher in the hierarchy, to idealistically supporting the isolated person, to sympathizing with and trying to help the alienated person.He also uses Grete to demonstrate the dynamic state of human reactions, by changing from sympathetic and affectionateness to vicious and unsupportive by the end of the novella. Kafka continues this shaping of society from the hierarchical structure by make Gregor himself to agree with the authoritative figures in his life and conform to the idea that he is worthless, thus imposing self-isolation. the interactions in the midst of the characters in The Metamorphosis show how Kafka believes that the isolation and alienation of a person in society is initiated by those at the top of the social hierarchy and works its way down through the hierarchy until at last everyone in society has been influenced to accept the initial decision of one person .Works CitedKafka, Franz. The Metamorphosis. Trans. Ian Johnstone. Nanaimo Malaspina University-College, 1999.

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 50

Reflection - Essay ExampleI still remember when my pigeonhole Mr. Simbiel drafted a memo and gave me the mandate to spread to staff member offices and put them on the notice board. The memo never achieved purpose intended for because in had no date printed on it. I assumet the importance of scrutinizing a business document right from the plain paper to posting and even after. No detail should be left unattended to.In business field, establishing a professional relationship with clients through available meals like letters, emails and fax are key to consider. In additions, contracts are importantly documented in invest to reverse disagreements from brewing. Throughout the session, I was an intern I have applied this key writing issues I learn from crystallise and my mentors in the field and have sure achieved great results from it. Sending letters electronically and nurture email etiquette came in handy because it is my area I was not well exposed to in class but had the chanc e to implement.Most companies have pitched tent on social platforms and it is essential as a business hopeful and intern to master the effective communication of the business in order to attract customers, maintain and meet social media terms and conditions. This includes blogging for the company and replying to customer requests on the internet via both emails, social platforms or the fax system. Using the right term during communication is important to relay a message intended across. Without which causes a false alarm. I became pray to this when an episode crept up because of wrong word use. I emailed a customer about the debt owed to the company without putting into mind the effect of the words I used. The client complained bitterly to our manager who explained soberly to the client about me and the purpose of the message and rested the exercise amicably.Internship in a learning session that students should take time to grasp concepts particularly the practical aspects so

Wednesday, May 15, 2019

Sales promotions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Sales promotions - Essay ExampleManagers tendency to bank on sales promotion has increased over the passage of time beca usance sales promotion triggers the emptor action serving as a short-term tool while advertising shapes the attitude of market toward the brand in the long-run (Kotler, 2003). A very effective way of sales promotion is the use of coupons. In this strategy, customers either cut the coupons from newspapers or receive them on their own so as to be able to buy products at discounts (Rikey, 2012). Rebates are of two kinds an instate rebate, where the discount is taken immediately at the stemma register, or a mail-in rebate, or MIR, where the customer must fill out documentation, and mail it in decree to receive their refund (Miller, 2014).Cooperative advertising programs and sales training programs are means of effecting the support of retailers. opposite sales promotion techniques attract professional buyers in the business market. Continuity programs are of huge conditional relation in the travel industry and also have propagated to the advertisers of business-products (OGuinn, Allen, and Semenik, 2011, p. 568). Repeat purchase is rewarded by continuity programs and

Tuesday, May 14, 2019

Land law problem Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

field law problem - Essay ExampleAs this is pertinent to both(prenominal) the issue of Jennifers intended fault and the right of survivorship, it is important to establish that correlative tenancy existed.Joint tenancy, as noted in the preceding, holds that individually tenant has an identical interest in the whole of the property, as determined through the four unities of title, interest, possession and time. on a lower floor common law, mavin of interest is present despite the unequal financial contributions of both parties because conveyance was to both as beneficial joint tenants. Unity of title is similarly present as both Jennifer and Clarissa stock their interest in Maple Leaf under the same conveyance. The same applies to unity of time since both real their share under the same conveyance in fee simple and their titles were vested at the same time. Further, unity of possession also holds as both parties are entitled to the possession of the whole of Maple Leaf and un complete Jennifer nor Clarissa may exclude the other as a joint tenant.In further bearation of the circumstance that the joint tenancy exists, it is important to clarify that nothing in the case study indicates that the conveyance contains an unambiguous/express declaration of how Jennifer and Clarissa should hold equitable interests in Maple Leaf. Such declarations are absolute (Goodman v snappy (1986) Fam 106) and conclusively rebut any presumptions to the contrary. As no such declaration is present, however, one can affirm that neither of the devil husbands has a right to the property and that Jennifers statement, albeit written, does not constitute an act as breakage as would convert a joint tenancy into a tenancy in common.First, as regards the marvel of severance, one may affirm that despite Jennifers very clear intent, severance was not concluded in this case. In accordance with Section 36(2) Law Property Act 1925, there are four de jure recognized methods for severanc e. The prime(prenominal) of these is the actions which any one of the joint beneficial tenants may take operating on his/her share. As per case law, any of the tenants is at liberty to dispose of his/her share in a course that would severe it from the joint tenancy. In Nielson v Fedden (1975), Justice Walton found that a unilateral declaration did not constitute such an act as it did not shatter any of the unities and, hence, did not sever the joint tenancy. Within the context of the stated, Jennifers statement does not constitute a severance in accordance with the first method.A second method for severance is by mutual agreement as in burgess v Rawnsley (1975). A third method involves the parties acting, for a sufficiently extended purpose, as if the property were a tenancy in common, as in Palmer v Rich (1897) but not Greenfield v Greenfield (1979). In the first, the parties acted as if the property in question was a tenancy in common for an extended period but in the second, the parties simply divided the property into two maisonettes and the interests of both were not treated as a tenancy in common for a sufficiently extended period. As regards, Maple Leaf, neither of these two methods, whether severance by mutual agreement nor acting as if it were a tenancy in