Monday, September 30, 2019

Economic Globalization and Global Sustainable Development Essay

Topic: To what extent is Economic Globalization an obstacle or an opportunity for Global Sustainable Development? Introduction: Globalisation refers to the growing link between nations resulting from an increase in trade people and ideas in one global market place. Globalisation is a concept that has its roots dating back to the ages of Karl Marx, Peter Dicken (2011). Globalisation has become a platform for many developed an developing nation to engage in trade and investment related activities. Cross border investments and international trades are the key elements of Globalisation. Globalisation was introduced in the global economy in mid 1980’s . Introduction of globalisation has resulted the companies to lower the costs especially in terms of transportation, communication and moreover to analyze the economic feasibility of the firms to setup different phases of their productions around the globe based on their economic feasibility. Globalisation has been focus area of research for academic scholars from mid 1980’s , Globalisation has been termed differently by different scholars. For some of the research scholars Globalization creates a positive technological, political or economic progress. For some of the scholars it creates a dominance of the developed nations over the developing nations. For some globalisation has changed the global business scenario in which the power of the state is defined by the power of firms. Globalisation has different types of features like economic, social, cultural, political and environmental features. Due to globalisation tremendous changes taken place in global trade and exchanges, and boundary less international integration which includes the international migration, currency exchange, transfer of technology and flow of ideas and information internationally. Globalisation  also initiates the change of industrial structures which help to increase the power, productivity, capacity and profitability of that firm. As a result of globalisation the internationalised enterprises depend on subsidiaries and strategic alliances which lead to the comparative and competitive advantage. The cultural taste and priorities also influenced by globalisation through global communication like email and internet. Taking the positive and negative side, challenges and opportunities, could say that globalisation has changed the world system and the trends which is more likely to be continued in future as well. This will result the higher flow of the goods, capital, culture, people, technology, invention and services. One of the benefits of globalisation is increase in production and efficiency. Due to competition among the markets may lead to improved division of labour. Competition among the markets also increase the production, output, higher wage level and better living standards. When considering the problems of equity and distribution it could be a burden to poor and developing countries that has to pay the burden of exclusion and marginalisation sharing the benefits of globalisation. So there is an essential of making market favour to the poor as well by decreasing the social barriers and help the poor countries to get along with the risks and shocks. Globalization has created a new potential for the development and wealth creations for the firms which can be analyzed based on different views mainly based on political, business and economist view. Political View: According to Ohmae 1995 and Scholte 2000 the idea about globalisation is bringing about the demise of sovereign national state as global forces undermine the ability of governments to control their own economies and societies. In the world of Politics Globalization is termed as the widening deepening and ease of access of the world interconnectedness and the issues or the outcomes of these issues is in the study of world politics. Business View: On a business perspective globalization refers to a wide range of business activities undertaken across national borders. Globalization has favoured  lot of business activities and drawn attentions of many business executives. According to Al-Rodhan 2006, Globalization is a process that encompasses the causes, course, and consequences of transnational and transcultural integration of human and non-human activities for business across national boundaries. Globalisation helps in declining in restrictions for the business to selling their products in other countries other than the home country. There by helping business to sell their products internationally and lower prices according to consumer affordability. Economist view: An economist view globalisation is defined as an economic interdependence of geographically distinct people. According to Heron (2008) explains that Globalisation is about movement of goods, resources and enterprises across national boundaries seeking cheaper resources to maximize profit and efficiency† The economic view of globalisation is closely linked to the political view. Political aspect of a country helps to facilitate the changes in the economic process of the country. Pons and cons of economic globalisation: Globalization can create conflicts at different levels, especially when the counties that benefit from globalization have been richer countries of OECD. There has been a wide range of economic disparities especially in case of income. Mainly with many of the Asian developing nations joining the club of richer countries and poorer countries of Africa and Latin American and some of the European nations going poorer. The problem of distribution of income remains the main challenge of Globalization. There are also many challenges that rooted because of the interdependence of the economies. The local economic crises and fluctuations of one country started affecting the economies of the other countries. One of the main examples being the financial crisis of Asia started in Thailand in 1998 and spread to other south east Asian nations and international financial systems. This was one of the biggest examples of financial vulnerability in the financial systems due to globalization. Recent subprime mortgage crisis and subsequent economic recessions was one of the main examples of the inter connectedness  of countries due to globalisation. These have also led to economic warfare and even military actions in some cases. However on analyzing the recession of 2009 event though there has been a wide hit in the growth of GDP in many countries the economies of china and India showed a strong positive sign and maintained a sturdy GDP growth which was a big blow to all the critics of globalisations. Globalisation has been rise since the end of cold war. Developed economies as seen a wide jump in there GDP during these periods. But off late the scenario has changed the there has been a wide jump in the GDP of developing nations like India and China. Increase in Foreign Investments can be used as one measure of growing economic globalization. There has been a huge inflow of FDI into the developing economies of Asian countries. The specialisation of companies and people in creating goods and services in a globalized economy through global trade contribute to the highest prosperity but can lead to monotony because Globalisation creates monotony in production allocating production levels to the most suited regions. For example production of rice in a region would cause the soil to become in fertile and creates an ecological imbalance. Another impact of globalization is the impact on sovereign countries, they have lost control over their economies and the power has moved to the developed nations, multinationals and international financial institutions. This highlights the fact that national sovereignty has been systematically undermined by the effects of globalisation. This impact had a greater effect on the poorer and developing countries, Leading to an increasing cynicism among political elites and their citizenries. This has led for an increase in national sentiments, populism and protectionism among the citizens which in turn led to political movements against globalisation. The impact of globalisation can also become a scapegoat especially in case of failure of national policies like causing high unemployment and undermining social welfare during different phases of development. Globalisation has also created a great source of regional disparities which in turn has led to initiation of many warfare and destabilisation in many regions. For example they have created ethinic irredentism, violence and regional conflicts like wars from Iraq to Afghanistan to horn of Africa. The interconnectedness of globalisation has also led to evolution of terrorism , environmental impacts  like global warming etc. How globalization impacts sustainable development? Globalisation is featured by both endogenous factors and exogenous factors i.e. Its is influenced by factors like the rise in technology as well as the decision making of the governments like the foreign trade liberalisation. According to Pearce and Barbier (2000) sustainable development contains three main components environment social and economic development. Globalization has impacted this entire factor. The recently published framework by OECD for sustainable development contains four main factors. Wider use of Markets: They suggest increasing the scope of expanded use of market based approach to provide signals to internalise markets and social externalities in an efficient manner. On the environment side this is likely to involve more use of environmental taxes and subsidies. Strengthen decision Making Process: Sustainable development can be achieved at all levels by coordinating and improving the effectiveness and efficiency of policy interventions. In other words this also states that the governments should integrate environmental and social policy needs into sectors and bring in transparency in policy design implementation Harness Science and Technology: Scientific advancements and technology are one of the major forces underlying in increasing productivity and living conditions of people. This imply that there is a need for the governments to spend more on the researches and technology enhancements. Manage Links to the Global economy: The developing countries should be more a major player in the global economic activities and international trade and investment flows are major concerns of sustainable development. Trade and Investment flow need to be as compatible as possible with society’s environmental and social policy objectives. The increasing interconnectedness both on the selling as well as on the market with the introduction of globalization has led to a sharp increase in the division of labour and a focus on the competencies of every individual at all the levels. Multinational companies restrict to good and services offered at high quality at lower prices. The global trading of goods and services has led to a worldwide increase in production. According to world bank production of goods and services increase by 45% during the past decade due to the introduction of globalisation, The growth data mainly indicates from the developing economies like China, Brazil, India, Russia and South Africa. Especially in case of china with its huge population in manufacturing sector has met the majority of demand from the western world. Developing countries like India which was once a British colony mainly exporting Tea and cotton has become a global player in the international markets. The economic power revelations are drifting away from strong holds of developed countries like US and EU states to developing nations like China Inda Brazil etc. Globalization has helped to reduce poverty World Bank estimates reveal that number of people who lived on less than one dollar a day decreased from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 260 million in 2007. This was mainly due to the poverty reduction in countries like India and China. At the same time we could see that there is wide increase in income difference The anti-globalisation and the debate One of the main challenges faced by globalisation is that it requires grater participation efforts among the developed countries and the poorer countries and the developing nations. Joint efforts are required for creating new political structure and restructuring existing structure in order to bring a sustainable economic globalisation. This is not an easy effort for the governments as it require a better clarity and transparency in our economic systems, appropriate accountability and above all a vast reserve of political will. The main challenges remain with distribution of income and equally distributing the gains of globalisation, In short the governments can choose two side approach to bring in a sustainable economic development. Firstly by developing or improving the policies for domestic policy   among developed nations and secondly by improving the systematic use and advancement in technology. This approach would especially help the economies of developing countries because they are more susceptible to global capital volatility. This would help them to rely less on foreign inflow of capital and generate wealth within the economy. According to Dani Rodrik (2009). has emphasised the centrality of locally financed investment for the success of small, open developing economies, and hence there is a need for them to increase private and public savings. Public spending among developing countries can, therefore, play a socially and economically efficient Conclusion: Globalisation posses a deep reaching roots and also a force that helps to influence the direction of the nation. The aim of the globalisation is to remove all the difficulties and privatize all the resources and services. There are few factors that influenced the globalisation that includes the sophisticated communications, transportation technologies and services, migration and immigration and people started moving from places to places, a level of economic activity that helps to grow the market by combining the industrial markets and these international agreements helps to reduce the cost of doing business in foreign countries. Through this process of globalisation the world economy has integrated and increased. This integration helps to advance the trading of goods and services, the capital flow and made it easy for the migration of people across the world there by bringing in a sustainable economic development.. In 1980’s this word have been used when the internet and technology helped to increase, and faster the business across the world. For sure the globalisation has positives effect universally but there were protest against the WTO regarding the hazards of globalization. There were many anti globalisation movements like the consumer boycotts on the goods produced by multinational companies. In Short it can be concluded that market liberalisation by itself does not solve all the problems, it has caused severe damages to poor nations. Globalisation is the key the factor in today’s business world. The new era of Globalisation brings in new challenges and opportunities. I believe sustainable economic development can be achieved only by more   participation from all the levels of the economy. It is advisable to consider all the factors like environmental factors, Employment factors when taking business decision regarding globalisation in an economy. Scientific use of technolo gy and bringing a clear transparency in government governance would help the economy to bring in a sustainable economic development. References: Aggarwal, Raj, Colm Kearney and Jenny Berrill, â€Å"Defining and Classifying MNCs in International Business: Implications for Research Design and Strategy† Adams Jan 1997, Globalisation trade and the environment . In Globalization and Environment : OECD Acker, Joan. 2004. â€Å"Gender, Capitalism and Globalisation † Critical Sociology 30 (1): 17-41 Connell, R. (2005). Change among the gatekeepers: Men, masculinities and gender equality in the global arena. Signs: journal of women in culture and society , 30(3), 1801- 1825. Clark, I., Globalization and Fragmentation : International Relations in theTwentieth Century (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997) Freeman, Richard B. (2006), â€Å"People Flows in Globalization† Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 2, Spring, p. 145-170. Friedman, Milton, Capitalism and Freedom (University of Chicago Press,Chicago, 1982), p.133. Germaine, R., ed., Globalization and Its Critics (London: Macmillan, 1997). Gill, Stephen, â€Å"Economic Globalization and the Internationalization ofAuthority: Limits and Contradictions,† Geoforum, 23 (1992), 269. Hall, Nigel 2002 Globalisation and Third World Poverty, paper presented to New Zealand Association of Social Workers annual conference, unpublished Moghadam, Valentine. 1999. â€Å"Gender and Globalisation: Female Labor and Women’sMobilization.† Journal of World Systems Research V(2): 367 -388

Sunday, September 29, 2019

The Lake of Isle of Innisfree

â€Å"The Lake Of Isle Of Innisfree† is about a person who wants to have a different life in â€Å"Innisfree† and to relax in his life before. The first stanza is telling the readers that the main character wants to be free and leaves the annoying things behind his head and be free. The first sentence starts with â€Å"I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree. † It’s showing the readers that he is keen to go to Innisfree and is determined to go away. The next sentence â€Å"small cabin† is showing that his life is easy and doesn’t need luxury or any other dear things. The two last sentences in the stanza are showing how fun he will live in Innisfree. Bean Rows†, â€Å"honey bee†, and â€Å"bee-loud glade. † All show that he will have peace here and live the way he wants here. This stanza shows just how determined he wants to go to Innisfree, how peaceful he will be here, and how relaxed he will be here. The next stanza shows how the main character will live in Innisfree, and is comparing to the life before he was in Innisfree. The second stanza starts with â€Å"And I shall have some peace there for peace comes dropping slow. † It’s using a metaphor saying that his life is easy and simple. Showing that the life in Innisfree is peaceful and quiet.The next sentence â€Å"cricket sings† tells the readers that it isn’t noisy in Innisfree, it’s quiet, peaceful and a natural sound. â€Å"Purple glow. † In the third sentence is showing the readers that Innisfree view is also beautiful in its view not just sound. The last sentence of the stanza is showing the difference between Innisfree’s views of night and day. This stanza is shows just how beautiful Innisfree is between night and day it’s also comparing between the views of his life before. The last stanza is like the first stanza, the main character is determined to go to Innisfree.It starts wit h â€Å"I will arise and go now, for always night and day. † Means that the main character doesn’t care how tired how far it will be to Innisfree he won’t care. He just wants to go there. The next 3 sentences are all comparing to the life before he was. This stanza is comparing how he lived before and now. It’s also comparing to how determined he is to go to Innisfree. This poem is about a person who has a bored life before and wants to have a new life in Innisfree. The story’s main idea is to relax and have a simple life. It’s also means that money isn’t everything.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Idea Checklist Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Idea Checklist - Essay Example This paper seeks to provide a brief statement that identifies a product and three new, creative ideas relating to the selected product. Before developing a new product, one must look into various issues such as: generating ideas from suggestions of the customers; assessment of these ideas whether or not they fit with the strategy to be employed; research the market by focusing on the competitiveness of the product; team formation; designing critical path, setting budgets; considering other related risks; defining basic product requirement; valuing the selling price; designing the product; coming up with a prototype, gearing up for a full-scale invention; and final essential issue is continuous monitoring of the product (Wilson, 2013). Below is an example of a checklist based on a release-readiness checklist for a desktop software product. This kind of a checklist is an exit manuscript that indicates whether or not a specific product features gives an acceptable user experience. In conclusion, as demonstrated in the above example, there are various approaches for evaluating one’s idea. The most important aspect is to choosing the best criteria that best suite a particular entrepreneur’s needs depending on the type of the product (Hisrich, Peters & Shepherd,

Friday, September 27, 2019

Phramcology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Phramcology - Essay Example System Sympathetic Affect Parasympathetic Affect Clinical Condition CVS 1. Heart rate Increased 2. Vasoconstriction of vessels of skin 3. Vasodilatation of skeletal and cardiac vessels 1. Hear rate Decreased 2. Vasodilatation of vessels Bradycardia Respiratory System 1. Increased respiratory rate 2. Bronchodilatation Constriction of Bronchiolar Muscles Difficulty in Breathing Urinary Tract 1. Relaxation of bladder Walls 2. Constriction of sphincters 1. Contraction of bladder Walls 2. Relaxation of Sphincter Polyurea Genital Tract 1. Ejaculation 1. Penile Erection Excessive Erection Eye Contraction of pupil Relaxation of Pupil Mydriasis GIT 1. Relaxation of smooth muscles 2. Contraction of Sphincters 1. Contraction of smooth Muscles 2. Relaxation of Sphincters Increased Secretions 1. Diarrhea 2. Stomach Acidity Skin 1. Excessive sweat Glands Secretion 2.Pilomotor Erection No prominent effects Dry, hot Skin Workbook Activity 2 For each drug; in the first column, identify  ONE  para medic indication, then in the subsequent columns, list the molecular target involved in the identified interaction, the type of interaction (i.e. agonist / antagonist / allosteric modulator / inhibitor), and briefly explain how this interaction of the drug with the molecular target accounts for the observed therapeutic effect for that indication. Drug Paramedic Indication Drug Target Type of Interaction Therapeutic Effect Salbutamol Asthma ?2 adrenergic Receptor Agonist Bronchodilatation by activating beta-2 receptors in the lung. Adrenaline Shock Both Alpha and Beta Adrenergic Receptors Agonist Used Primarily in Cardiovascular Shock, Helps by activating Alpha receptors in the heart to increase its activity, also in the Lungs by activating beta-2 receptors in Asthma Fentanyl Analgesia Opioid receptors Agonist Not usually used now but acts mainly on the opiod receptors to cause Analgesia Ondansetron Nausea, Vomiting 5HT3 Serotonin Receptors Antagonist Used mainly during surgeries and chemotherapy and helps in decreasing Nausea and Vomiting Midazolam Seizures GABA receptors Agonist Emergency management of Seizures/Epilepsy, Act by activating GABA inhibitory receptors thus decreasing nerve impulse conduction and treating seizures Ipratropium Asthma Muscarinic Receptors Antagonist Acts at the Muscarinic Receptors in the lung to cause bronchodilatation and treating Acute Asthma Atropine Parasympathetic Poisoning Muscarinic Receptors Antagonist Used as a mydriatic agent in eye, also used in the emergency management of excessive parasympathetic activity in case of poisoning Adenosine Cardiac Arrhythmias Potassium and Calcium channels in heart Agonist at first while antagonist at the second receptor Used mainly in Cardiac Arrhythmias due to its affects on the Potassium (Agonist) and Calcium Channels (Antagonist) Ketamine Anesthesia NMDA receptor Antagonist Used to induce anesthesia in which the person remains conscious but is unresponsive (Dissociative Anesthesia) Nal oxone Opioid poisoning Opioid Receptors Antagonist Used majorly in the emergency management of opium poisoning because of its rapid blocking of opioid receptors and reversing the affects Aspirin Anti Inflammatory Several Receptors in the body Agonist at some and antagonist at others Used in the treatment of Pyrexia and Inflammation Work Book activity 3 In this workbook learning activity you will need to recreate and complete the following table in your workbook, considering the drugs used in your clinical practice as a paramedic: In the first column, list  FIVE  receptors from different classes, then list their endogenous agonist(s) in the second column. In the

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Nuclear Power Must Not be Phased Out Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Nuclear Power Must Not be Phased Out - Essay Example The rest is either exaggerated or purely hypothetical. Despite the claims against it and despite the mass appeal of such claims, nuclear power must NOT be phased out for the simple reason that it is one very sustainable source of energy. Nuclear energy remains sustainable because it is an energy source which is almost free from greenhouse emissions and thus will not likely have a great impact on climate change. Anti-nuclear power activists argue that most of nuclear energy comes in the form of fossil fuels and that this will eventually contribute to the greenhouse effect.1 This stems from the fact that fossil fuels, although not a direct source of nuclear energy, is the energy source upon which various stages of nuclear power production are made possible. In fact, electricity is used for various stages of the nuclear process such as uranium enrichment, the building of power plants, and the processing and storage of nuclear waste. Moreover, the idea is that the goal of nuclear fission is still the production of electricity, which is a major source of greenhouse gases.2 All these are believed to generate a â€Å"relatively high† amount of greenhouse gas emissions.... go to the opposite extreme in claiming that nuclear energy is â€Å"the world’s largest source of emission-free energy,† it would suffice to humbly admit that nuclear energy still contributes to the greenhouse effect, but the point is that what it contributes is statistically negligible. Aside from the insignificant amount of emissions from nuclear energy, its sustainability also depends on the idea that its waste products are relatively manageable. Nuclear waste is something that remains dangerous even for thousands of years and that there is always a possibility of contaminating huge areas. Furthermore, it is a cold hard fact that â€Å"there is no completely safe way to store nuclear waste.†6 Moreover, there is no guarantee that research on nuclear waste management will turn out to be successful.7 Admittedly, the issue of nuclear waste disposal is a strong argument against the sustainability of nuclear energy. Nevertheless, the volumes of wastes from fossil fu els are relatively much greater in quantity compared to those produced by nuclear power plants and thus, potential environmental damage is greatly reduced.8 Volume of wastes produced may be a minor issue in the environmental sustainability of nuclear energy but it is not as important compared to the factor of waste management. It may be true that nuclear wastes proves to be a threat to the environment but the nuclear technical community is rather more optimistic in believing that nuclear wastes can be contained or isolated safely until radioactivity cannot anymore harm humans or the environment.9 The solution is research and as of the moment, efforts are being made by governments in order to minimize emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulate matter.10 The issue of nuclear waste disposal, therefore,

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Comparison of Healthcare, Nursing Care, and Nursing education in the Research Paper

Comparison of Healthcare, Nursing Care, and Nursing education in the US and Ireland - Research Paper Example Barring a few exceptions such as Veterans Healthcare Administration, Medicare, Medicaid, Children’s Health Insurance Program and TRICARE, the health insurance in the United States is predominantly provided by the private firms (Sultz & Young, 2008). Many of the Americans and their families are extended health insurance by their employers. Yet, a great many Americans are left uninsured. The US spends more money per capita on healthcare than any other nation in the world (Herzlinger, 2007). In fact a large chunk of the national income is spent on healthcare every year. Considering the very high cost of healthcare in the United States, the country has the third highest healthcare budget in the world (Herzlinger, 2007). Irrespective of the gargantuan healthcare expenditure, when it comes to parameters like infant mortality and life expectancy, the US tends to fall behind other developed nations (Herzlinger, 2007). Though there are many government funded healthcare programs, yet they are mostly limited to the veterans, the elderly, the poor, children, and disabled (Armstrong & Armstrong, 1999). Luckily, as per the federal laws, the citizens are allowed a free access to the emergency services, irrespective of their ability to pay (Armstrong & Armstrong, 1999). The hospitals, doctors and the medical personnel in the United States are primarily funded by the insurance pla ns and the payments received from the patients (Roth, 2010). Also, there are also many inequities in the US healthcare system in the context of ethnicity and financial status (Roth, 2010). Besides, United States is one of the only two countries in the world that allows the pharmaceutical companies to engage in direct to consumer advertising of prescription drugs, thereby further adding to the cost of healthcare (Roth, 2010). The current Obama administration has given way to many healthcare reforms like Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Healthcare and

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Response 3 Fielding Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Response 3 Fielding - Essay Example In addition, I vehemently propose that since the story of the novel revolves around the Parson Abraham Adams, the title of the novel should have been after the name of the parson. Joseph Andrews is thought to be the protagonist of the novel due to the very fact that the story starts and ends concentrating upon him. Moreover, he is the person whose refusal to the advancements of Lady Booby gives the go to the circumstances. In addition, he undergoes various financial losses and physical torture, faces mental sufferings and troubles during his adventures on his way as soon as he is dismissed from his job. Further, he is the character of the novel that combines different scenes of novel and has relationships with all other characters including his sister Pamela, his mistress Lady Booby, his mentor Parson Adams, his childhood friend and beloved Fanny, his co-worker Mrs. Slipslop and his parents Mrs. & Mr. Wilson as well as his patterns and benefactors i.e. the Andrews. Even then the dominant role played and performed by the parson makes him as the central figure of the novel. The sacrifices made by the parson and the sympathies and love offered by him are beyond any doubt. It is reality that he had no concern with either Joseph Andrews or Lady Booby, nor he was a rich person having pelf or wealth in plenty. Moreover, he had no political plans in his mind, nor he was a social reformer at all. Even then, he appears to the limelight to stand by the hero Joseph Andrews to rescue him in his miseries. Parson Adams has set out on a journey to deliver as well as sell the sermons in order to get some money in the pursuit of earning some money, but unfortunately the most innocent character of the novel i.e. Parson Adams forgets his sermons at his house and has no benefit to accompany Joseph in his miseries and troubles. Instead of

Monday, September 23, 2019

US History before 1877, Development of Erie Canal Research Paper

US History before 1877, Development of Erie Canal - Research Paper Example This paper will discuss US history before 1877, with special focus on the â€Å"Development of Erie Canal†.The main points which this paper is going to cover are the historical perspective of the canal, construction of the canal, improvements in the plan and the financial implications of the canal project. The time era under discussion is between 1807 to 1825. Historical Perspective During the period between the late 18th and early 19th century the USA started to plan and develop the system of transportation throughout the country with special focus on the interiors areas and outside the localities from Appalachian mountainous regions. The main focus was on the linkage between Erie Lake and other big lakes in the coast of Atlantic by making canals. Initially a large number of survey and plans were laid out for the construction of the canal but most of them were not feasible and were rejected. The final plan was based on the survey which was carried out in 1816. Based on this s urvey the route of the canal was established. According to the plan the canal was expected to connect to the New York port at the river of Hudson close to Troy in the New York City. From Troy the flow of the canal would be towards Rome in New York. Finally it would reach to Buffalo (on the northeastern coast of Erie Lake) by passing through Syracuse and Rochester [1]. 1. Matt Rosenberg (2010), Erie  Canal, The Building of the Great Western Canal. Online accession at Guide (Accessed February 12th, 2011). After the development of the route plan of the Erie Canal the major issue was the arrangement of finances for the project. A bill was initially approved by the US congress for the provision of funding for the project then named as â€Å"The Great Western Canal†. The idea was found unconstitutional by The President of time J. Monroe and he vetoed it. The matter was then directly taken by the state legislature. The legislature, after extensive examination of the plan , approved for the funding of the Erie Canal project in the year 1816 with the condition that the tolls would be paid back to the government after the completion of the project. The city Mayor of New York was the chief supporter of the canal project and helped a lot for the construction and completion of the task. Fortunately he became the governor of the state in the year 1817 and was thus able to supervise the details of the plan [1]. Construction of Canal The formal construction of the canal named â€Å"Erie canal† began on 4th July, 1817. According to the plan the initial first segment was to be proceeded from the eastern side of Rome towards the river Hudson. Most of the constructors of the canal were the rich farmers who resided along the route of the canal. They were contracted to make the small portions of the project which came along their way. A large number of immigrants from Great Brittan, Germany and Ire Land supported the construction of canal in terms of manpow er [2]. 1. Matt Rosenberg (2010), Erie  Canal, The Building of the Great Western Canal. Online accession at Guide (Accessed February 12th, 2011) 2. Christopher. M (2008).  "Hints of Comeback for Nation's First Superhighway".  The New York Times. (Accessed February 12th, 2011). The portions of canal were to be dug with the help of horses and shovels. At time modern earth moving specialized equipment were not available so the construction of such plans was a tedious job. The labor cost was about 85 cents to 100 cents per day. This was a heavy amount since it was about three times the pay which a laborer earned during that time. The initial 24 kilometer of the canal - from Rome to Utica - were formally opened around the year 1819. The rate of construction was visibly slow; at the speed during that time, the canal

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Raising children can be stresful Research Proposal

Raising children can be stresful - Research Proposal Example Is parenting stressful or rewarding? Do you have the joy of parenthood? Or does parenthood leaves you with shattered dreams? Parenting is a heroic act and can be very stressful. You may be a stay at home or a working parent, single or married parent, mother or father, with one or several children, if you remain to stay cool, calm, and with full of vigor, you will be able get through the day (Child Development Institute, 2007). Children can be stubborn, grumpy, sensitive, angry, manipulative, wild or simply plain difficult. They always thought no other but themselves and they have an unpredictable temperament that oftentimes leaves you at a loss (Perry, 2008). The attitudes of your children leave you stressed and desolated. However, most of the time, it is on how we label our children makes parenting stressful. When a situation a parent should have with the child cannot be controlled, it is necessary that an appropriate approach on how to cope with the stress you have with your child should be embraced (Perry, 2008). These are: (1) Teaching your children limits and healthy self - expression; (2) model problem - solving strategies; (3) empathize with your children; (4) breakdown challenges into smaller steps; (5) project confidence in your child; (6) shape good, mature behavior, and (7) seek professional help. To avoid having violent and stressful environment with your child, it is important that the following must be observed: (1) offer your children the love and attention that he needs consistently; (2) make sure that your children are properly supervised; (3) show appropriate behavior to your children by the way you act; (4) do not apply physical punishments; (5) stick to your rules and disciplines; (6) teach your children about the dangers of firearms; (7) keep them away from violence (APA Online, 2008). Like adults, children also need to have love, care, attention, and

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Look at the beginning of act two Essay Example for Free

Look at the beginning of act two Essay And doesnt eat herself since she has presumably eaten with the children. In those times, (1692) wives were expected to stay at home, clean the house, cook the food, take care of the children, and obey their husbands. They were also expected to be good Christians, be calm, quiet etc. To express these qualities above, Elizabeth should probably dress in quite plain, conservative clothes, and walk straight, eyes slightly lowered, arms at the sides, and talk quietly. He then compliments her about the rabbit, Its well seasoned, and she receives it, blushing with pleasure. She then adds, that she took great care. Again, both are trying hard to be friendly to each other, to try to avoid argument. It is however; ironic that Proctor complimented her on the seasoning on the rabbit, since he seasoned it himself. After that, he talks about the farm and says with a grin I mean to please you Elizabeth. And she answers, I know it John. However, before she answers, she pauses, and finds it hard to say. This means that she might not think he honestly wants to please her, or make their marriage work. Since this is quite a dramatic moment, I think the lighting should focus on her at this point, and if present the orchestra should be silent to emphasize her hesitation. The author then repeats Elizabeths lack of love and coldness when John proctor gets up and kisses her, and then returns disappointed. This is so that if the audience misses the pause, thus showing her disbelief and distrust in him, they will see her total lack in passion and love when John is rejected from Elizabeth,. He then asks her for some cider, as gently as he can, since he feels she is hurt, and doesnt want to make her feel any worse. He then says, Its winter in here yet, which might be a hint for her to warm her heart and become more loving. Yet since her badly wants to be nice, he asks her on type of date, to walk across the farm. They both get up, and he walks to the door, and he seems quite happy. She however, isnt. He seems to notice this, and asks her if she is sad again. As they say these last lines, I think that the sense of their separation should be emphasised be lighting. Ie, the lights, which have been directed at both of them together so far, should split, a light on each character. This would subtly hint to the audience that although they are desperately striving to make their marriage work, it cant yet because there is a distance between them, and theyre not on the same wavelength. The audience can also see this when John seems deep in his thoughts about spring, flowers, and Massachusetts, while Elizabeth seems to worry about something. She answers to his question, Are you sad again and immediately justifies her answer when she says that she thought he had gone to Salem since he was back so late. This could show the audience that she thought he had gone to see Abigail, because they know Abigail lives in Salem from what they saw in act one. He knows that she thought of him going to see Abigail, so he says he has no business in Salem. This shows the audience, that although he is eager to let go of the past, (which is also shown in act one I will cut my hand off before I ever reach for you (Abigail) again. ) Elizabeth has not yet forgiven him, which he accuses her of later. You forgive nothing and forget nothin! She then admits to having let Mary go to Salem and this makes him quite angry. However, when she carries on he starts shouting at her holding back a full condemnation of her and says that she should control her servants better. Perhaps he also thinks that she should have controlled Abigail, so he wouldnt have had an affair with her. Basically, in this part of Act Two, the author shows that the strain in their relationship was caused by his affair with Abigail, which has resulted with her distrust. Miller also shows that Proctor quickly raises his temper, which could also strain a relationship. Proctor only seems to have raised his temper when Abigail and his affair with her are mentioned. This could be because he feels guilty. Knowing what parts of the act give hints to their difficult relationship helps tremendously when the play is performed, since the director knows what parts of the act he must emphasise. He can do that by using different lighting, sound effects, dramatic music from an orchestra, acting, and pauses. By Karina Wortelboer Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Arthur Miller section.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Do Stocks in VN30 Basket Follow Weak Form?

Do Stocks in VN30 Basket Follow Weak Form? The research question: Do stocks in VN30 basket follow weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis? PART 1: INTRODUCTION In the investment world, portfolio management refers to actions taken to maximize the return on a portfolio (Investopedia, 2016). Under portfolio management., Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) is one of the most important theories that investors should take into consideration if they aim to earn abnormal returns. This hypothesis basically illustrates the relationship between stock price and available information on the stock, which is reflected in three forms including strong form, semi-strong form and weak form. Out of the three patterns, EMH at weak form states that historical prices cannot be used to make predictions about future stock prices. This research paper will examine the weak form EMH in the context of constituent stocks in the VN30 Index an adjusted index of VN-Index (which is the market index of Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange, Vietnam). PART 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Random Walk Theory and Efficient Market Hypothesis The origin of stock market efficiency can be traced back to early twentieth century when Bachelier (1900) proposed his idea about Random Walk Hypothesis. This theory affirms that prices of past, present and even the future have no correlation; in other words, security prices tend to follow randomness and therefore are unpredictable. A few studies around this issue were conducted in 1930s; however, the Random Walk Theory was intensively discussed in the 1960s. Bacheliers work was then reinforced with the introduction of Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) by Fama (1970). According to this theory, stocks always trade at their intrinsic values, making it impossible for investors to benefit from stock mispricing i.e. purchase undervalued stocks and sell overvalued stocks. As a result, the only way investors can earn a higher return than the market is by engaging in riskier investments. Nowadays, the Random Walk Theory is referred to as the weak form of EMH, stating that stock prices are random and past events have no influence on the current prices. Meanwhile, it is widely known that technical analysis is the science of using historical price patterns to anticipate future price movements. Hence, according to the weak form of EMH, there is no point in applying technical analysis to predict and beat the market. 2.2 Research studies conducted towards Weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis Many studies have been carried out to investigate the weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis, some of which fail to support the weak-form efficiency. Srinivasan (2010) examines the validity of random walk hypothesis for two major stock markets in India, i.e. SP CNX NIFTY and SENSEX, using observations from 1st July 1997 to 31st August 2010. The study applied Augmented Dickey-Fuller test and Phillips-Perron test to point out that characteristics of random walk are not present in Indian stock exchanges; hence, weak form efficiency is rejected in the case of Indian markets. As a result, this provides trading opportunities for investors to earn abnormal returns since they can make predictions about future stock prices. Similarly, Singh et al., (2016) tested the Efficient Market Hypothesis in Carbon Efficient Indices of India, the US, Japan and Brazil by using Kolmogrov-Smirnov test, Shapiro-Wilk test, runs test and autocorrelation test. The results from these statistical tests reveal t hat daily  closing stock prices do not follow random walk in all countries under investigation. This is in line with Nwidobie Adesina (2014), who conclude that Nigerian stock exchange is not efficient in weak form by employing the GARCH autoregressive model. This inefficiency, according to Nwidobie Adesina, may be explained by limited information dissemination in the market, high trading and floatation costs, information hoarding and insider trading, as well as poor implementation of investor protection laws in the country. The rejection of weak form efficiency is also found in other emerging markets, evidenced by the studies of Islam, et al. (2005), Srivastava (2010), Bà ¼yà ¼kÃ…Å ¸alvarci Abdioglu (2011), Haroon (2012) and Agbam (2015). Other studies, on the other hand, show evidence of market efficiency in some economies. Andrianto Mirza (2016) used daily stock price data collected from LQ45 Index, Jakarta Islamic Index and Kompas 100 Index during the period 2013-2014 to examine weak form efficiency in Indonesia. The results from runs test and serial correlation test demonstrate that Indonesia stock market follows weak form efficient pattern. Specifically, the following conclusions are drawn from the study: 1) stock price movement is random; 2) there is no correlations between the stock price movement of the present day and previous days. Andrianto Mirza also suggest that investors use fundamental analysis to react quickly for available information, as well as utilize news from digital media to update market conditions. Further evidence supporting the weak form efficiency of capital markets may lie in the findings of Jiang, et al. (2014), who examined WTI crude oil futures prices from 1983 to 2012. Using bootstra pping technique, the academics confirm the efficiency of crude oil futures market, and state that the market is inefficient only in case of turbulent events, such as the oil price crash in 1985, the Gulf war, and the oil price crash in 2008. 2.3 VN-Index, VN30 Index and VN30 stocks 2.3.1 VN-Index VN-Index is the index used to illustrate price fluctuations of company stocks listed on Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HOSE). The problem is that, VN-Index calculation takes into account all shares outstanding, which include free-float shares and restricted shares. Free-float shares are shares freely available for trading in the market (Standard and Poors, 2016). In contrast, restricted shares are not available for public trading as they are closely held by control group, other publicly traded companies or government agencies (Standard and Poors, 2016). As a result, some stocks such as GAS, VNM, MSN, VCB and BID can largely influence VN-Index due to their large number of restricted shares. 2.3.2 VN30 Index and VN30 stocks The VN30 Index (also known as VN30 Equal Weight Index) was first introduced to the market on February 2012, tracking the performance of the top 30 large-cap liquid stocks on the Ho Chi Minh City stock exchange in Vietnam (Phoenix Capital, 2017). This index can overcome the weaknesses of VN-Index in the following manners: Capitalization values of constituent stocks are based on the number of shares freely traded on the market (free-float); Restrict the excessive influence of a particular stock by setting the capitalization weighed limit of 10%; Among more than 300 stocks listed on HOSE categorized into 11 primary industries, stocks in VN30 basket are present in 9 industries. Moreover, stocks in the VN30 basket represent about 80% of HOSE market capitalization and 60% of HOSE market volume (Dao, 2014). From the advantages above, it can be concluded that VN30 Index can represent the Ho Chi Minh market in terms of industries, market capitalization and liquidity. This makes VN30 Index a quite useful investment instrument for index funds. PART 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Data Collection This research paper employs the quantitative method to investigate the weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in the context of Vietnamese background. The study is based on secondary data, which are daily closing prices of stocks included in the VN30 basket. The data are collected from the database of Bao Viet Securities Company a well-known securities firm in Vietnam. It is noted that the VN30 basket is periodically reviewed and adjusted every six months on January and July (Dao, 2014). Since the introduction of VN30 Index in February 2012, the basket has been reviewed and adjusted totally 10 times. For the purpose of this study, not all 30 stocks in the basket are chosen for analysis. Specifically, the stocks selected must meet the criterion of being consecutively included in the basket for the past five years. Put it another way, if stock A is included in the basket for one period but excluded for the next period, stock A will not be considered as the object of this study. This ensures the continuity of the data and fair treatment for all stocks in the basket. After all, only 16 stocks meet the criterion (see Appendix A for the full list of stocks selected). Their closing prices are then collected for the examined period from 06th February 2012 (the first day of VN30 basket) until 20th January 2017 (the end of the latest reviewed period). 3.2 Method of Analysis The data collected are analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics software version 20. Particularly, three tests are conducted to determine whether stocks selected are at weak-form efficiency, namely runs test, autocorrelation test and Ljung-Box Q statistic. The runs test is a non-parametric test that is designed to find out whether successive price changes are independent. The test is based on the premise that if a series of a data is random, the observed number of runs in the series should be close to the expected number of runs. In this context, the runs test at 5% significance level is used to test the following hypothesis: H1: Stocks in the VN30 basket follows random walk Meanwhile, autocorrelation (or serial correlation) test measures the correlation coefficient between the stock return at current period and its value in the previous period, whether the correlation coefficients are significantly different from zero. In addition, the Ljung-Box Q (LBQ) statistic examines the joint hypothesis that all autocorrelations are simultaneously equal to zero (that is, the data values are random and independent up to a certain number of lags). In this context, the autocorrelation test and Ljung-Box Q statistic (at 5% level of significance) are employed to test the following hypothesis: H2: There is no correlation between stock prices of today and previous days In short, the combination of tests mentioned above help determine whether 16 selected stocks in the VN30 basket follows weak-form efficiency or not. PART 4: ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS 4.1 Results of Runs test Table 1 shows the results of the runs test based on daily closing stock prices of 16 chosen stocks. Table 1: Results of Runs test STB VIC SSI MSN FPT HAG KDC DPM VNM REE VCB Test Valuea 17.27 55.76 21.53 87.14 45.83 19.23 40.97 33.45 113.55 23.14 34.03 Cases 461 605 651 648 560 425 601 759 547 484 698 Cases >= Test Value 727 583 537 540 628 763 587 429 641 704 490 Total Cases 1188 1188 1188 1188 1188 1188 1188 1188 1188 1188 1188 Number of Runs 38 20 41 18 53 8 7 17 12 10 10 Z -32.222 -33.379 -32.139 -33.487 -31.453 -34.042 -34.134 -33.478 -33.840 -33.942 -33.944 Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 Runs Test BVH HPG PVD CII GMD Test Valuea 47.31 35.31 48.11 22.33 29.84 Cases 637 660 723 627 594 Cases >= Test Value 551 528 465 561 594 Total Cases 1188 1188 1188 1188 1188 Number of Runs 39 8 9 34 43 Z -32.265 -34.071 -33.996 -32.560 -32.044 Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 a. Mean Source: IBM SPSSs result, 2017 As can be seen from the above table, the actual number of runs is significantly less than the expected number of runs (total cases), which is evidenced by negative Z-values for all chosen stocks. Furthermore, it is observed that the significant values around the mean of all stocks are 0.000 which is below 0.05 (5% level of significance). This indicates that 16 selected stocks do not follow random walk behaviour, resulting in the rejection of the null hypothesis H1 which says stocks in the VN30 basket follows random walk. 4.2 Results of Autocorrelation test The results obtained from autocorrelation test and Ljung-Box Q statistic of 16 chosen stocks are presented in Table 2. Table 2: Results of Autocorrelation test and Ljung-Box Q statistic Source: IBM SPSSs result, 2017 As can be observed from Table 2, significant positive autocorrelation (> 0.8) is detected at all 16 lags for all chosen stocks. It is noted that positive autocorrelation suggests predictability of stock prices in the short term, which provides confirmatory evidence that goes against market efficiency (Bà ¼yà ¼kÃ…Å ¸alvarci Abdioglu, 2011). Moreover, evidence from Ljung-Box Q statistic seems to suggest dependence between current stock price and prices of previous periods. It is noticeable that p-values are all equal to zero for all lags on all 16 stocks. Therefore, the Q statistic fail to support the joint null hypothesis that all autocorrelation coefficients from lag 1 to 16 are equal to zero for the observed stocks. Put it another way, the null hypothesis H2 of absence of autocorrelation is strongly rejected for all lags at 5% significance level. 4.3 Interpretation of findings On the basis of empirical results obtained from runs test, autocorrelation test and Ljung-Box Q statistic, both null hypotheses H1 and H2 are rejected. In other words, it can be concluded that 16 chosen stocks in the VN30 basket show no characteristics of weak-form efficiency. The findings of the current study are consistent with those of Truong et al. (2010), Vo Le (2013) and Do et al. (2014) who found that Vietnamese stock market is inefficient in the weak form. In general, the results of this study contradict the Efficient Market Hypothesis (Fama, 1970) and Random Walk Theory (Bachelier, 1900). As noted in the literature review, empirical studies on the weak form of Efficient Market Hypothesis in emerging markets have been thoroughly examined in recent years, as in cases of capital markets in India, Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan and Nigeria. Although these studies generate mixed results, most of which suggest that Random Walk characteristic is not a good description of these markets. This study, by investigating a case study in Vietnam, further supports the idea of weak form inefficiency in emerging markets. The rejection of market efficiency in Vietnam have been proven by a number of studies. It seems possible that this inefficiency is due to gaps in Vietnamese financial system. Non-transparency in the disclosure of information, crowding effect and speculation are popular phenomena in Vietnam stock exchanges; thus, stock prices somehow do not reflect companies intrinsic values. These gaps are signals of an underdeveloped financial system (Fry, 1994; Leung, 2009) where asymmetric information, moral hazard and adverse selection are likely to be found (Islam, et al., 2005). As a result, investors are vulnerable to losing a substantial amount of money. Additionally, as Vietnam currently does not have a derivatives market, the investment risk can be more severe for investors. Since weak-form efficiency is not witnessed in this study, one implication of the result is that historical data and patterns may be used to make prediction about future stock prices. In other words, technical analysis might be employed by investors when making investment decisions to help them earn abnormal returns. Furthermore, as this study is based on daily data only, further research can test the Efficient Market Hypothesis by taking into account weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly or yearly data on a longer time horizon. Alternatively, future research studies may investigate the hypothesis in certain industries or different indices in Vietnam. 4.4 Limitations Due to the nature of the research question, there exists some study limitations which can partially affect the results objectivity. First, because of the selection criterion, only 16 out of 30 stocks are chosen for the purpose of the study. Therefore, it is difficult to generalise the findings to the whole VN30 basket since its establishment. Second, precision of data is questionable since some data of closing stock prices are missing in some trading days. As a result, this somehow impacts the accuracy of statistical tests as well as their implications. PART 5: REFLECTION ON THE RESEARCH PROCESS At the beginning of the research process, we realized that portfolio management is a massive area in finance; therefore, narrowing down this topic was critical to our group as it would affect how we could construct individual topics and research questions. However, the familiar topic of each was not in favour of others, which caused conflicts in our discussions. Hence, it was important that we be aware of these conflicts and arrive at a reasonable compromise that is beneficial to the whole group (Hede, 2007; Wu et al., 2013). Eventually, since I had prior experiences of investing in the stock market for three years and had written a dissertation about technical analysis, I received the trust from my fellows when I proposed the topic related to Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH). On the one hand, I felt happy to have helped my group figure out the appropriate topic. On the other hand, I was a little bit worried as my group members had little exposure to financial markets. In fact, I ac knowledged that having to work on an unfamiliar area could lower their motivation for the research (Boneva, 2008). When it came to work allocation, some serious issues arose as there was no leader in our group. Because most of the workloads were set by oral agreements without any meeting minutes, everyone was usually vague about their responsibilities. Furthermore, our discussions did not work very well because most of them took place through WhatsApp group rather than face-to-face meetings, leading to frequent distractions from social networks. I feel these problems were really time-consuming and slowed down our groupwork performance. If I had been engaged in a similar project again, I would have nominated myself as the group leader so that I could assign workloads clearly and equally for everyone. I would have also suggested face-to-face meetings in order to have direct conversations with members. This should have brought more efficiency to the group in terms of time and contributions. Another issue that obstructed our groupwork productivity was bad time management of my team members. We all had two deadlines for two reports on the same date, but while I devised plans to finish both of which with adequate efforts, my partners fell into the trap of procrastination. Being rushed for two assignments at the same time was definitely not a good idea as it would negatively affect the performances of both (Peper, et al., 2014). To avoid this situation, we should have drawn up a timeline for the whole group so that everyone could effectively devote their time to each assignment. With regards to literature search and data collection phase, some members in the group seemed to be passive in finding articles and sharing ideas to their peers. They neither knew how to write an adequate literature review nor kinds of online sources they could employ. I feel this was partly due to their lack of background in finance and partly because they had never conducted any formal research studies before. Although this annoyed the rest of group members, we understood that this sometimes could be unavoidable in a multicultural group. We tried to give them as many related articles as possible and instructed them about skim and scan technique in order to pick essential readings. In fact, we should have reported the issue to the tutor from the beginning of the research so that those falling behind could receive additional trainings in research skills. In summary, this experience has taught me valuable lessons that are quite useful for me in future career, including how to communicate and collaborate with members in a multinational group, as well as things to do to become a good leader. I have also learnt more about how to improve time management skills, and how to resolve conflicts occurring during group works. Finally, I think I should speak my mind more frequently in the future if it is for the sake of the whole group. References          Agbam, A. S., 2015. Tests of Random Walk and Efficient Market Hypothesis in Developing Economies: Evidence from Nigerian Capital Market. International Journal of Management Sciences, 5(1), pp. 1-53. Andrianto, Y. Mirza , A. R., 2016. A Testing of Efficient Markets Hypothesis in Indonesia Stock Market. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 219, p. 99-103. Bachelier, L., 1900. Louis Bacheliers Theory of Speculation. 1st ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Boneva, D. L., 2008. Effects of Work Ethic and Social Identification on Motivation in Groups. Illinois: ProQuest. Bà ¼yà ¼kÃ…Å ¸alvarci, A. Abdioglu, H., 2011. Testing the weak form efficiency of the Turkish stock market. African Journal of Business Management, 5(34), pp. 13044-13056. Dao, T. B., 2014. VN30 Index: An Overview and Default Probability Analysis. Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Do, T. T. N., Le, T. B. Nguyen, T. T., 2014. Stock market efficiency in emerging markets: Evidence from Vietnamese stock market. s.l., s.n. Fama, E., 1970. Efficient Capital Markets: A Review of Theory and Empirical Work. Journal of Finance, 25(2), pp. 383-417. Fry, M., 1994. Money, Interest, and Banking in Economic Development. 2nd ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Haroon, M. A., 2012. Testing the Weak Form Efficiency of Karachi Stock Exchange. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 6(2), pp. 297-307. Hede, A., 2007. The shadow group: Towards an explanation of interpersonal conflict in work groups. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(1), pp. 25 39. Investopedia, 2016. Portfolio Management. [Online] Available at:[Accessed 15 March 2017]. Islam, S., Watanapalachaikul, S. Clark, C., 2005. Are Emerging Financial Markets Efficient? Some Evidence from the Models of the Thai Stock Market. Melbourne, Centre for Strategic Economic Studies. Jiang, Z.-Q., Xie, W.-J. Zhou, W.-X., 2014. Testing the weak-form efficiency of the WTI crude oil futures market. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Volume 405, p. 235-244. Leung, S., 2009. Banking and Financial Sector Reforms in Vietnam. Asean Economic Bulletin, 26(1), pp. 44-57. Nwidobie, B. M. Adesina, J. B., 2014. CAPITAL MARKET EFFICIENCY. AN EMPIRICAL TEST OF THE WEAK-FORM IN THE NIGERIAN CAPITAL MARKET. Journal of Advanced Studies in Finance, 2(10), pp. 164-170. Peper, E., Harvey, R., Lin, I.-M. Duvvuri, P., 2014. Increase Productivity, Decrease Procrastination, and Increase Energy. Biofeedback, 42(2), p. 82-87. Phoenix Capital, 2017. VN30 EQUAL WEIGHT TOTAL RETURN INDEX. [Online] Available at:[Accessed 18 March 2017]. Singh, R., Leepsa, N. M. Kushwaha, N., 2016. Testing the weak form of efficient market hypothesis in carbon efficient stock indices along with their benchmark indices in select countries. Iranian Journal of Management Studies, 9(3), pp. 627-650. Srinivasan, P., 2010. Testing weak-form efficiency of indian stock markets. Asia Pacific Journal of Research in Business Management, 1(2), pp. 134-140. Srivastava, A., 2010. Are Asian Stock Markets Weak-Form Effcient: An Evidence from India. Asia-Pacifc Business Review, 6(4), pp. 5-11. Standard and Poors, 2016. Float Adjustment Methodology, s.l.: SP Global. Truong, D. L., Lanjouw, G. Lensink, R., 2010. Stock-Market Efficiency in Thin-Trading Markets: The Case of the Vietnamese Stock Market. Applied Economics, 42(27), pp. 3519-3532. Vo, X. V. Le, D. B. T., 2013. Empirical Investigation of Efficient Market Hypothesis in Vietnam Stock Market. Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Wu, K. et al., 2013. Supporting group collaboration in Wiki by increasing the awareness of task conflict. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, 65(6), pp. 581 604. Appendix A: List of chosen stocks in the VN30 basket based on the selection criterion No. TICKER COMPANY NAMES 1 STB Sai Gon Thuong Tin Commercial Joint Stock Bank 2 VIC Vingroup Joint Stock Company 3 SSI Sai Gon Securities Incorporation 4 MSN Masan Group Corporation 5 FPT FPT Corporation 6 HAG Hoang Anh Gia Lai Joint Stock Company 7 KDC Kinh Do Corporation 8 DPM PetroVietnam Fertilizer Chemicals Corporation 9 VNM Viet Nam Dairy Products Joint Stock Company 10 REE Refrigeration Electrical Engineering Corporation 11 VCB Bank for Foreign Trade of Vietnam 12

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Sociotechnical Systems and Management Styles Essay -- Technology Work

Sociotechnical Systems and Management Styles In today’s advanced technological workplace, companies are looking into several new management styles and concepts. Among them is a theory called sociotechnical systems (STS). This is a theory that has been around for about 50 years and is still being attempted for use today. Many managers along with one member of the STS founding team, Fred Emery, argue that STS is obsolete; other managers have implemented STS with great success. With this new style of management practice, several changes will have to take place. These changes along with several examples of both positive and negative effects will be examined throughout this essay. To introduce the STS theory and let the reader get an understanding of just what is involved in STS, it is imperative to list several changes that must take place for an effective STS strategy to work. A few changes in the old management style in comparison with STS are listed below: 1 Old -Technology first -People as extensions of machines -Maximum task breakdown, simple, narrow skills -External controls: procedures, supervisors, specialist staffs -More organization levels, autocratic style: unilateral goal setting, assignment of workers -Frequent alienation: â€Å"It’s only a job† -Less individual development opportunity and employment security STS -Joint optimization of systems -People as complements to machines -Optimal task grouping, multiple, broad skills -Internal controls: self-regulating subsystems -Fewer levels, participative style: Bilateral goal setting -Commitment: â€Å"It’s my job, group, and organization† -More individual development opportunity and employment security As seen above, many changes are nece... ...John Hoerr and Michael Pollock. â€Å"Management Discovers the Human Side of Automation.† Taken from Business Week. (1986), p. 1 10 John Hoerr and Michael Pollock. â€Å"Management Discovers the Human Side of Automation.† Taken from Business Week. (1986), p. 2 11 John Hoerr and Michael Pollock. â€Å"Management Discovers the Human Side of Automation.† Taken from Business Week. (1986), p. 1 12 Pasmore, William. Designing Effective Organizations: The Sociotechnical Systems Perspective. New York: 1998. 13 Jacobs, D.A. and Keating C.B. â€Å"Process Analysis and Personnel Development Program. Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA, April 1998. 14 Zell, Deone. Changing by Design. Cornell University Press, 2000.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

cancer :: essays research papers

Topic: Cancer General End: To Persuade Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that cancer is bad and they should eat a healthy diet. Central Idea: Cancer can be caused by smoking, drinking, sunburns, ect... and there are foods that can help stop cancer. I. What we eat really affects our risk of cancer.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A. 35% of all cancers have a nutritional connection.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1. When lifestyle factors such as smoking and sunbathing are included the risk can   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  be as high as 85%.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  a. What we eat makes a big difference in our energy levels, our mood and   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  and even our self esteem.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  b. Foods rich in protective factors such as fruits and vegetables, we are   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  doing something positive for our health and well being.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2. Antioxidants, anticarcinogens, and bioflavonoids repair damaged cells   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  a. The cells that are ruined by bad habits can be repaired by the   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  antioxidants, anticarcinogens, and bioflavonoids.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  b. If too many cells are damaged and form a clump then cancer is formed   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  and these botanical factors will not be effective. II. Foods that are important for our health.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A. Foods that come from plant kingdom rather than the animal kingdom have many   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  protective botanical factors.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1. Many of the plant kingdom foods act as antioxidants, anticarcinogens, and   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  bioflavonoids.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  a. Some foods rich in botanical factors are classified as phytonutrients.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  b. Some phytonutrients include berries, dark green leafy vegetables, citrus,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  fruits, legumes, and whole grains. B. Dietary fiber is important in cancer prevention.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1. The dietary fiber provides bulk to our diet and helps maintain a healthy colon.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  a. Most Americans eat about 10 grams each day but this is half of what is ideal.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  b. Dietary fiber is found in whole grain cereal, breads, pastas, beans, leafy   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  vegetables, fruits, nuts, and seeds. C. Fish can be protective against cancer.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1. Oily fish such as salmon, herring, mackeral, halibut, and tuna contain oils rich in

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Is fast food consumption really not as advantageous to one’s health as consuming home cooked meals?

The problem that is trying to be resolved is fast food better than home cooked meals. Both fast food and home cooked meals are good things to eat. Fast food is good because it’s easier than going home making food from scratch but the negative thing about it is you have to pay every time you want something to eat. Home cook food is better because you can spend money on the ingredients you need to make the food, keep it and make it again anytime you want Home cooked meals can be made from fresh ingredients such as vegetables and fruits.They also do not have as much sodium and fat as fast food meals. They are more nutritional and don't have as many calories and saturated fat than fast food meals. They may take longer to prepare than fast food, but they are healthier and better tasting. The consequences of eating these foods include higher cholesterol, higher blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease and obesity. Additionally, fast food doesn’t provide basic of balanced nutri tion. It lacks essential vitamins and mineral, fiber, and antioxidants.Another health factor is that eating fast food in large amounts creates poison in the body. Introduction Most people are saying that Home cooked meals are generally considered healthier than fast food. This is because fast food meals typically contain high levels of calories, saturated fat, sugar and salt. People continue to eat fast food because it’s faster and don’t always have time to cook as soon as they get home.Possibly the advantage of home cooked meals over fast food is its cheaper cost but the reason might be because home cooked meals  generally take more time to prepare and require you to have cooking skills. On the other hand, the taste of home cooked meals is generally better, because you are able to select fresh and any type of ingredients you feel will make the meal good. Home cooked meals are different from fast food meals in terms of serving size and overall nutritional value. Afte r reviewing a article it said that ‘A typical fast food burger uses a combination of ground beef, bread and condiments that ends up having about 71 cal/oz for a sandwich that is about 3. 5 oz.It is possible to make home cooked burgers healthier by using lean ground beef and wheat bread as well as healthy condiments. If you choose your ingredients carefully, it is possible to make a home cooked burger that only has about 67 cal/oz for a 4. 5 oz sandwich. ’ Methodology The participants that will be studied are teens from ages 13-19. The way the research will be studied is on the benefits of fast food versus home cooked meals. The gender will be both male and females that have their experiences from cooking at home and eating fast food.The nationality would be all kind, not just base on one area of a specific nationality. The ethnicities that will be studied are Latinos, Samoans, African Americans, Filipinos, Asians and Hispanics. There is more than one way of collecting d ata. A way of collecting data will be doing surveys on teens that eat fast food and eat home cooked meals. Another way of collecting data to help my research will be using website, magazines and books that have any information on fast food and home cooked meals.Also watching videos and food network TV shows that show you on how to cook food will be a big help to my research. The area that my information will be collected and interviewing teens will be in the city of Carson. Surveying and interviewing teens and adults is the most effective way to collect data because one will hear from different points of view and opinions instead of from just one perspective. This is helpful because more than one source will be utilized in an effort to gain relevant information.This way of researching is effective because one can get a lot of information and it makes it a lot easier to understand the subject of the research. After receiving such feedback one wouldn’t really need to use the in ternet but it can help save time from completing the surveys. Results The purpose of collecting the research was to see if fast food was better than home cooked meals. One conclusion that can be drawn from the administering of such research is that of the 50 people surveyed, 25 people preferred home cooked meals and the remaining 25 preferred fast food.Survey results also indicated that the nutritional value associated with the two types of meals, fast food and home cooked, was almost near irrelevant as far as being a factor in their decision of what to consume. Therefore, the health benefits of one over the other were only a matter of importance to a select few, ten percent exactly. A second conclusion can be deduced from the interviews that were conducted. There were ten interviews that were conducted and the information gathered from those interviews was advantageous in deciphering whether or not fast food is of health benefit when compared to that of home cooked meals.The result s of those interviews distinctly indicated that ninety percent of those interviewee candidates felt home cooked meals had more health benefits to offer than fast food meals. Hence consuming home cooked meals would be advised for those who wish for a healthier alternative to fast food and are seeking health benefits. Such benefits include lower cholesterol, lower probability of heart problems, and diabetes. A third conclusion drawn from the collecting of the data noted above is that home cooked meals offer more nutrients and thus have higher nutritional value than fast food meals.Home cooked meals have higher nutritional value generally because one can select the ingredients that go within the meal(s). Fast food meals come with pre-designated nutrients and most of which are high in sodium and the disadvantageous fats. Therefore, one has no control over what ingredients go in their selected meal. Even though many fast food establishments now offer healthier alternatives it is still no t enough to outweigh those that stem from home cooked meals, at least according to the data gathered from this study. DiscussionThe new solution about this whole research would be to stop eating fast food so much and eat at home a lot more because its more healthier than what fast food produce. Its ok to eat fast food when you need to but if its not mandatory you shouldn’t take risk at destroying the body. Eating fast food is better nutrition and people wouldn’t have so much problem about what there body size weight. Cooking itself is a relaxing activity. It can be a great way to settle down from a stressful workday and bring family together. Kids can help set up the table or help prepare the food.Cooking on the grill also bring family and friends together over the summer, Christmas and thanksgiving. Conclusion Eating home cook meals is the best way to eat healthier than fast food. Not all fast food is bad for everybody. One can manage a healthy diet even if one choose to eat fast food sometimes. By not ordering the biggest sizes, drinking water, choosing items that are grilled or baked, manage are more likely to keep one body healthy. Everybody eats fast food and home cook meals but more people eat home cook meals because of the costs and what people can get out of it.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Accidents, Illness and Emergencies in the Early Years Setting

Describe the policies and procedures for dealing with accidents, injuries, illnesses and other emergencies that are in place within the school setting (P3). These policies and procedures of accident, injury, illness and other emergencies are in place within the school setting to govern working practices and provide quality and an agreed framework for action. The management within the school setting is responsible for creating the policies and for checking that they are being followed, and the staffs are responsible for implementing the policies.As all staff and parents must be aware of these policies, you will often find them on a notice board, or in the settings brochure. It is also important that new staff are informed of these policies and procedures during their induction.The school policy states, â€Å"†¦Our paramount importance is to regard the health and safety of all employees, pupils and other visitors to Windwhistle Primary School†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The following statement s, dealing with accidents, injuries, illnesses and other emergencies is issued in pursuance of the Health and Safety at Work Act. 1974 and the policy of the County Council.Accidents and Injuries Policy and Procedures†¢All accidents must be reported to the Head Teacher and entered into the accident book which is found in Health and Safety Rep's first aid folder.†¢Fatal or Major Injuries must be reported immediately by telephone to Health and Safety Office and also to the Chair of Governors. This must be followed up by the completion of an accident report form and sent to the Education Health and Safety Officer.†¢Dangerous Occurrences must also be reported immediately by telephone to Health and Safety Officer as above.First Aid – Dealing with Accidents, Injuries, Illnessess and Other Emergencies.The appointed person(s) by the head are qualified to administer first aid to casualties. The responsibilities of the appointed person(s) are: †¢To take charge in the situation where personal injury or illness has occurred and where further medical help is needed.†¢To ensure that the first aid boxes/cupboards are fully stocked with designated items only. In the case of serious injury (other emergency), responsibility of the appointed person ends when the patient is handed over to medical care or parent/guardian.The first aid boxes/cupboards in Windwhistle Primary School are located in: †¢The Main Office †¢The Staff Room †¢Class Year 4D †¢And Class Year 1J All outside class rooms hold basis first aid equipment. Notices giving details of whereabouts of first aid facilities will be displayed at appropriate sites.The Head Teacher will assume responsibilities of the appointed person in the absence of the appointed person. However, these instances should be very few and far between as planned cover should be achieved and only in the case of unplanned absence will this situation occur. All teaching staff act in loco parentis du ring the time that the school is open for children.All injuries, whether to staff, pupils or visitors, must be recorded via the school accident book or for more serious injuries, on the accident report forms. North Somerset's guidance for accident reporting should be followed at all times (covered later on). Any serious injuries or illness should be transported to hospital by ambulance as the patient's condition could worsen. Accidents or illnesses of this type should be reported by telephone or fax in the first instance to the Health and Safety Officer and then followed by a written report/investigation using appropriate North Somerset paperwork.No attempt to move an injured person should be made until a proper  examination and assessment has been completed. There is clear evidence that premature handling of the casualty has worsened injuries.Minor injuries and may be treated on a self-help basis or by any members of staff in loco parentis.THE CARE OF SICK CHILDREN (DEALING WITH ILLNESSESS)Windwhistle Primary School recognises its responsibility to promote a learning environment that is safe for all. In order to maintain a clean and healthy environment this policy provides guidance for staff and parents as to when children should or should not be in school if showing signs of illness. The health and wellbeing of all children is of paramount importance to enable them to be successful learners and to be the best that they can be.Guidance†¢Children should not be brought to school if they are displaying signs of illness. If parents do bring children to school and staff feel that they are unfit for school, parents / carers / emergency contact will be contacted and requested to come and collect their child and requested not to return their child to school until symptom free.†¢If a child is thought to be unwell while at school they will be seen by a qualified first aider as the condition of the child needs to be assessed. This should be done in a kind an d caring manner. The Head Teacher of should be informed of any sick children.†¢Should a child become ill whilst at school, a member of staff will contact the parent / carer / emergency contact. While awaiting the arrival of parents, the staff will ensure the comfort of the child in the school office, taking appropriate action, which would include seeking medical advice if necessary. If the child is in danger, the staff will seek medical advice immediately. Should a member of staff consider an illness / situation to warrant immediate medical attention, they will report to a First Aider and Head Teacher who will contact emergency services or take the child directly to Hospital and the parent / carer notified accordingly.†¢Staff will report any worries about a child's health to the parents / carers immediately. Parents are responsible for keeping the school informed about their child's health.†¢Children with infectious or contagious diseases will be excluded for certain periods. If staff suspect that a child has an infectious or contagious disease, they will request that parents / carers consult a doctor before returning the child to school and the school will seek advice from the Health Protection Agency.†¢We recommend that children do not attend school while suffering from one of the communicable diseases and they should be excluded for the minimum periods recommended by their Doctor. Although exposure of children to a communicable disease in itself is not sufficient reason to require their absence from school, any child who becomes a home contact of diphtheria, poliomyelitis, typhoid and paratyphoid fevers will be requested to remain absent from school for the recommended time. The school will take advice from the Health Protection Agency.†¢Coughs and colds do not normally require the child to be absent from school but this depends on the severity and how the child is able to cope with the school routine. A child who is, or who appears to be unwell may be asked to return home.†¢A child who has sickness or diarrhoea whilst at school should be collected immediately and kept absent from school for 48 hours following the last bout of sickness or diarrhoea.†¢Parents will always be contacted and informed if their child has a high temperature of 101F / 38C or above.†¢To prevent the spread of conjunctivitis, suspected cases will be reported immediately to parents who will be requested to take their child from school  to seek medical advice. When treatment commences, the child may return to school.†¢Chicken Pox – children need to be absent from school for a minimum of 5 days from the onset of the rash. After this time, if all spots have dried and scabbed over, the child can return to School. Parents / carers will also be contacted if their child develops a rash or suspected thrush. This will need to be checked by a Doctor whose advice should be followed.†¢If your child has not been his/he r normal self at home but is not showing signs of illness when brought to school, parents should mention this to staff and ensure that contact details are correct and that they are obtainable.†¢The school understands the needs of working parents and do not aim to exclude children from school unnecessarily. However the decision of school is final when requesting the exclusion of a child for illness or infection. Decisions will take into account the needs of the child and those of the other children and staff in school.OTHER EMERGENCIES – FIRE DRILLSFire and Emergency Procedures†¢Each week the alarm will be tested to ensure that it is effective. Points from different zones should be used to trigger the alarm to ensure that all break glass or other points are in working order. Details should be recorded in the Fire Log Book.†¢Fire drills must be carried out at least once per term to enable everyone to become familiar with the evacuation procedure. Details should b e recorded in the Fire Log Book.†¢In each room there should be a diagram showing exit and line up points.†¢The location explosive substances such as gas and paint should be known and the Senior Fire Officer informed upon arrival.†¢At present gas cylinders are stored in locked safety cages outside the classrooms†¢Temporary heaters are located in the storage area at the foot of the stairs.†¢Other highly flammable/explosive substances are not held on this site.†¢Fire exits and fire exit routes should be free from obstruction. At all times all exit doors must be unlocked whilst there are people in the building.†¢All fire exits must be clearly labelled and comply with legislation e.g. should be pictorial rather than just writing.†¢The use of display materials must be controlled in fire exit corridors. Display/notice boards should be covered in Perspex to limit combustible materials in fire corridors.†¢All visitors spending any length of time i n the school should be made aware of arrangements in case of fire.†¢The fire log book is kept in the Care Takers cupboard. Full and detailed records are kept of evacuations, call point testing, alarm system servicing, fire fighting equipment checks etc.On Discovery of A Fire†¢Operate the nearest alarm call point †¢Go to the nearest telephone and dial 999 †¢Carry out any previously arranged duties to be done in the event of fire or go to the nearest line up point.†¢On sounding the alarm, the fire brigade will be summoned if necessary by senior management. All staff, pupils and visitors must leave the building immediately, closing doors behind them as necessary.†¢Line up points have been designated and a diagram displaying where they are is placed in each room.†¢Only if there is no risk to personal injury should attempts be made to tackle a fire using a suitable fire extinguisher. In addition, if there is no risk of injury, mains services such as gas and electricity should be turned off.†¢The mains isolator for gas can be found †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..N/A†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. and the mains isolator for electricity can be found in the downstairs stock cupboard.Action on Hearing a Fire Alarm†¢Teacher or responsible adult will supervise children leaving the building by appropriate exit, closing the door when the last person is out. (Diagrams located in each room).†¢Proceed to line up point in the allocated playground.†¢Walk quickly. Do NOT run.†¢Keep calm.†¢Do not stop to collect any personal belongings or books.†¢Registers will be taken to the line up points by the secretary and distributed to teachers for roll call.†¢If the fire brigade has been called there must be clear access to the site by emergency services.Explain how the school should ensure that the policies and procedures are followed effectively (M2).To ensure that the policies and procedures are followed effectively the s chool should: †¢Ensure that all staff are aware of the policies and have a duty to co-operate with them.†¢Ensure that all policies and procedures are easily accessible for reference.†¢Provide adequate training and instruction to enable all employees and pupils to perform their duties safely and efficiently.†¢The Head Teacher, Senior Members of staff and School Governors should make regular reviews on the policies and procedures to make sure they are in a good working order.†¢Teaching staff could try to incorporate the health, wellbeing and safety procedures into activities for pupils. For example, role modelling activities in what to do in case of a fire or what to do if a peer falls ill.†¢Routines as stated by policy and procedure, for example fire drills, should be practiced on a regular basis. This is to ensure on real occurrences, the routines can be followed effectively.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

In our time – An exquisite combination of literary technique and absurd realism

Through an exquisite combination of literary technique and absurd realism, Flannery O'Connor reveals to the reader a grotesque underside of life in the rural south of the United States. By combining a certain flare for dialogue, an intense and primal understanding of human nature, and the constant use of irony, O'Connor paints a vivid image of the world she witnessed around her while commenting on society and the importance of traditional values. O'Connor transfers the vulnerability of one into many, and her mastery of shifting control within the cast of characters, ensures the uncertainty of the outcome and in the process. This reminds us that none of the roles in our lives are stagnant and that by intentionally blinding ourselves to what we do not wish to see or recognize, takes away more than just a view. Through the unique verisimilitude of her stories, she reveals to us that what we attempt to disregard inevitably emerges again and again. One of the most distinguishing aspects of O'Connor's literature are the characters she portrays and develops. Each represent philosophies and personalities, which are derived through the mid 20th century southern lifestyle. Their response to diversity and adversity eventually leads to horrific sadness, tragedy and death, or the exposure of bizarre and atrocious values. With the constant use of religious imagery, tragic foreshadowing and humorous irony, the stories â€Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find† and â€Å"Everything that Rises must Converge† clearly demonstrate and portray O'Connor's ideology of the gradual breakdown of society as a whole with the internal collapse of traditional values. Predominant themes such as religion and racism provide a powerful statement on O'Connor's perspective of society. Through the effectiveness of these techniques, Flannery O'Connor successfully analyzes the existential plight of human existence and its conflict with traditional and religious conviction. In both stories, the antagonist is always a representation of traditional values, whether it is of strong Christian belief or of racial bigotry, whereas the protagonist is seen to take the form of modern scientific beliefs. In the story â€Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find,† the antagonist is the Grandmother; she remains nameless throughout the story. The Misfit is the protagonist. Though it appears that the Grandmother is extremely manipulative and deceitful during the course of the story, as she was responsible for the deaths of the entire family, one must consider and observe the treatment she receives from her relatives. In the majority of the story, she is either ignored by her son and daughter in law, or rudely criticized by her grandchildren. The grandchildren are representative of the breakdown of respect and filial dependence seen throughout society. However, O'Connor also wanted to demonstrate the counterbalance to this concept: In my time,' said the grandmother, folding her thin veined fingers, ‘children were more respectful of their native states and their parents and everything else. People did right then. Oh look at that cute little pickaninny! ‘ she said and pointed to a Negro child standing in the door of a shack†¦ (Pg. 119) The idea that the grandmother refers to the Negro child as a ‘pickaninny' not only demonstrates blatant and unintentional racism, it subverts the lines of the respect that the hypocritical grandmother was previously referring to. Similarly, in the story â€Å"Everything that Rises†¦ , O'Connor demonstrates the breakdown of respect and dependence and generational confliction. The antagonist is played by Mrs. Chestny, who is similar to the grandmother in the sense that both mean well and both women hold strongly to their traditional beliefs. Julian Chestny, her son, takes the role of the protagonist, a smug and selfish young man who also represents a similar collapse. ‘They don't give a damn for your graciousness,' Julian said savagely. ‘Knowing who you are is good for one generation only. You haven't got the foggiest idea where you stand now or who you are. (Pg. 407) The fact that Julian has the right to question his own mother's authority and her wisdom and knowledge is direct evidence not only of his protagonistic, but of the lack of respect he has for this woman who obviously has seen and known much more than he has. O'Connor also exhibits the issue of racism in our society. Not only does she demonstrate it, but she executes the theme in such a way that it is obvious to the reader that she believes racial segregation will be witnessed in and around our society for many generations to come. One example of this is the fact that Julian does not realize that he himself is a racist. Being a hypocritical idealist, he displays an acute sense of anti-racism, but formulated in such exquisite irony, we find that he indeed is a racist due to his constant need to attempt to be anti-racist. Julian does not wish to accept the fact the descendant is unable to sever its bond with the ancestor. A generation cannot function without an impact from generations past. This is similarly found in â€Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find,† and evidence can be found within the quote presented earlier. The grandmother is openly racist in front of the children, even though she does not realize that her comments were racist, thereby supporting her racism as a whole. It is due to previous generations that succeeding generations remain true to and hold on to traditional beliefs and values. Ironically in the case that O'Connor depicts, is the value of racism. O'Connor shows to the reader that racism is an organic being: it is able to sustain itself and survive through generational passage of culture and tradition. However, this is where the importance of Christianity comes into focus in O'Connor's stories. Being a devout Christian, she believed that the sole path to redemption and absolution was through religion. According to O'Connor, the only way to redeem oneself was through grace. Though this is seen to a lesser extent in both these stories as compared to several others, O'Connor demonstrates several aspects of religious allusion and symbolic image. The breakdown of society is further emphasized with the use of religious symbol in ‘Everything that Rises†¦ â€Å". She was almost ready to go, standing before the hall mirror, putting on her hat, while he, his hands beside him, appeared pinned to the door frame, waiting like Saint Sebastian for the arrows to begin piercing him. (Pg. 405) The allusion made in this quote is that of Saint Sebastian, a Roman martyr and an officer of the Praetorian Guard until Diocletian discovered his Christianity. His life lay in the hands of Roman archers, which is often the subject of many paintings. The arrows are frequently seen piercing his back, and in the case of Julian and his mother, represent the burden placed upon Julian. The idea that Julian perceives his own mother as a burden is remarkable. Julian does not have a job and lives with his mother at her home. Not only is he ruthless and critical of her thoughts and beliefs, he does not even consider that he might be the burden. Julian's idealistic hypocrisy is countered and revealed in the conclusion of the story. The title itself is a foreshadowing quality of the story, as one can expect inevitable conflict and perhaps, concession and compromise. Julian's hypocrisy is ironic, as he claims to know the real world better than anyone else. In the end, he is forced to understand the real world with the passing of his mother, revealing his weakness and vulnerability and the extent of dependence that he has on his mother. A tide of darkness seemed to be sweeping her away from him. ‘Mother! ‘ he cried. ‘Darling sweetheart, wait! ‘ Crumpling, she fell to the pavement. He dashed forward and fell to her side, crying, ‘Mamma, Mamma! ‘ (Pg. 420) This is the only point in the story in which Julian actually calls his mother a ‘mother' and a ‘mamma', revealing a glimpse of his past childhood. On the same page O'Connor writes, The tide of darkness seemed to sweep him back to her, postponing moment to moment his entry into the world of guilt and sorrow. (Pg. 420) It is interesting that in the first quote, the tide sweeps Mrs. Chestny to Julian, and in the second it sweeps Julian to Mrs. Chestny. This further demonstrates Julian's dependence on his mother. He has finally been able to enter the real world, the world he claims to understand and recognize. In â€Å"A Good Man†¦ â€Å", O'Connor uses certain forms of foreshadowing in the early passages of the story to ‘warn' the readers of future occurrences, and of certain religious aspects. They passed a large cotton field with five or six graves fenced in the middle of it, like a small island. (Pg. 119) The presence of five or six graves stimulates a period of realization for the reader, as the family consists of six people, giving an eerie sense or prescience of events yet to take place. This gives the reader the impression that the conclusion to the story will be shrouded with death and despair. Though this example of foreshadowing does not directly relate to O'Connor's theme of religion in her stories, it does in a sense foreshadow a further foreshadowing. .. In case of an accident, anyone seeing her dead on the highway would know at once that she was a lady. (Pg. 118) This quote is interesting, since it is because of her, that the family strays off their original path leading to Florida to one that heads for Georgia. It is also interestingly ironic as they do in fact have an accident, and the person who finds her does not see her as a lady. O'Connor uses the symbol of the path/road to identify the paths we take in life, or in this case, the proper path of religion. If the Grandmother had been the lady she claimed herself to be and if she remained true to the righteous path of Christianity (that of truth, virtue, honest, etc. ), the family would not have ‘strayed off path', and the proper path would not have led them to death. With the encounter with the Misfit, we find him to exemplify the contemporary world, exposing his protagonistic qualities. ‘I wasn't there so I can't say He didn't,' the Misfit said. ‘I wisht I had of been there,' he said, hitting the ground with his fist. It ain't right I wasn't there because if I had of been there I would of known†¦ if I had of been there I would of known and I wouldn't be like I am now†¦ ‘ (Pg. 132) We find the Misfit not only questioning the existence of a Supreme Being, but also addressing a common dilemma of the human consciousness. Though we are aware and mindful of our own existence, we remain primitive animals with violent and primal qualities and nature. The clash between our primal and animalistic instincts is in constant confliction with our metaphysical human nature. The development that develops between the Misfit and the Grandmother is amazing. We find belief to be anything beyond what we can see, hear, touch, smell, etc. Accordingly, any form of spiritual or anti-spiritual ideology is a leap of faith. O'Connor shows the reader that what the Misfit realizes, and what the Grandmother eventually realizes is the fact that sacred dogma and religious belief can no longer compete with the scientific and methodical views and the immorality of the modern world. O'Connor personifies the contemporary views dominating the modern world with her use of the Misfit. As society evolves, it begins to ignore traditional values, and according to O'Connor, acts as a catalyst for the eventual total breakdown of society. In our time, there are misfits and there are lost souls, many of whom unexpectedly play the roles in O'Connor's stories as ‘prophets', searching for faith and absolution, the messengers of ‘lost conscientiousness'. These prophets are used as tools to not only expose the truths and cruelties of the modern world, but also ushers the readers into a psyche of dark and desperate thoughts and feelings which engulf the human soul, imbuing them with a state of utter helplessness in view of the imminent doom in which the reader can foresee during the story. This exposed darkness, which is a prominent figure in the human condition, takes the concept of the human condition itself to a particularly unnatural level and undesired truth of human understanding. From a grandmother who indirectly destroys her own family through her acts of attempted good will, to a non-existent and unresolved mother – son relationship united and divided under the influence and reality of racism and the tragedy that concludes the story, Flannery O'Connor makes a statement on the affiliation between the justification of religious and traditional values, and the corruption and destruction of society, ranging from the 40s / 50s era of black prejudice to an almost ludicrous extent of religious fanaticism. O'Connor's main statement was that humanity as a whole has strayed off its path, just as the Grandmother and her family did in â€Å"A Good Man†¦ â€Å". This story can arguably be labeled as a form of foreshadowing itself, as it shows what would happen if humanity continues on its irregular path. Just as the Grandmother and her family met brutal and untimely death as a result, O'Connor is showing us that we too, will experience this, should we continue life this way. Her numerous statements on the dark realities of our world are reminders of what we have to overcome. She demonstrates the constant clash between the modern and the traditional. We must understand that we contain and determine our fate. It seems plain that O'Connor feels that the eventual outcome will be the death of society. In the stories â€Å"A Good Man is Hard to Find† and â€Å"Everything that Rises must Converge†, Flannery O'Connor uses her prophetic characters in combination with Christian imagery, apocalyptic foreshadowing, and the ubiquitous evils permeating society to this particular level, and leaves the reader closing the book with a feeling of complete despondency for the future of mankind.