Sunday, February 10, 2019
Affirmative Action :: American Government, Race Relations, EEO
Affirmative challengeIn the United States, Affirmative Action is one of the governing body programs to outstrip the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such(prenominal) as minorities and women. The policy was put forth by national agencies enforcing the courtly Rights Act of 1964 and two executive orders, which provided that government contractors and educational institutions receiving federal coin develop such programs. The Equal Employment Opportunities Act (1972) set up a commission to enforce such plans. The establishment of racial quotas in the name of affirmative action brought the charges of so-called reverse discrimination into the belated 1970s. Although the U.S. Supreme Court accepted such an argument in the causal agency University of California v. Bakke (1978), it let existing programs stand and it also approved the engross of quotas in 1979 in a case involving voluntary affirmative-action progr ams in unions and surreptitious businesses. In the 1980s, the federal governments role in affirmative action was good diluted. In three cases in 1989, the Supreme Court undercut court-approved affirmative action plans by giving greater standing to claims of reverse discrimination, excretory product the mathematical function of minority set-asides where past discrimination against minority contractors was unproven, and restricting the use of statistics to prove discrimination, since statistics did not prove intent. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 reaffirmed a federal governments commitment to affirmative action, but a 1995 Supreme Court determination placed limits on the use of race in awarding government contracts the affected government programs were revamped in the late 1990s to encompass each person who was "socially disadvantaged.