Sunday, June 2, 2019

The History Of Sport Tourism

The History Of Sport touristryThis essay impart examine the anticipated impingement of sports tourism on the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games. The essay giveing ask who and what defines a sport tourist, in addition, the impact a sports tourist drop set about on Glasgow and Scotland two positively and prohibitly. The final section of the essay will consider the general impact of the games in cost of sports development and health in Scotland.On the 9th of November 2007, the Commonwealth Games Federation announced that Glasgow would legion the games in 2014. Cited from (Glasgow wins race for 2014 Games, 2007) This would change the landscape of sport in Scotland and tourism. Glasgows City Council Leader stated Its about qualification sure there is a lasting legacy. (Purcell, 2007).This was the culmination of three years of hard work for the city of Glasgow and Scotland. The bid would capture the imagination of both the humankind and the media this was due to importance and legacy that the commonwealth could find to Scotland finished redevelopment, selling our glossiness and products roughly the world and besides the profit of tourists (Glasgow Games 2014, 2008).Tourism is a dewy-eyed spanning theorem split into many categories, the international Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defines tourism as particular activities, selected by choice and undertaken outside the home environment. Tourism may or may not involve overnight stays a path from home (Standeven and De Knop, 1999).To understand tourism there be many factors that are involved when one is defining a tourist. A tourist is generally split into two categories commercial enterprise and recreational (i.e. on holiday) and are categorised indoors Domestic or International tourism (Standeven and De Knop, 1999).An International tourist is a visitor who travels to a country other than that in which he/she has his/her general hall for at least one night but not more than one year , and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activeness paying(a) from within the country visited. firearm a domestic Tourist is a visitor residing in a country, who travels to transmit within the country, but outside his/her usual environment, for at least one night but no more than six months, and whose purpose of the visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from with the office staff visited. (Ryan, 2003)To be classified as a tourist either at home or abroad you must spend at least 24 hours away from your home. Business tourists are tourists that travel through work commitment and are inhibited by their employment and a holiday tourist is the rearward(a) were the tourist has the freedom to choose where to travel and the duration. Both types of tourists apply to specific forms of tourism including Sport. Cited from (Standeven and De Knop, 1999)Like tourism itself, Sport Tourism can be considered a wide and spanning theorem split into many categories. Within sport tourism, sport is given broad term including natural activity aspects much(prenominal) as running and walking. While participation is not key for a sport tourist as they can be an energetic participant or a passive spectator, it is the active aspect that is the polarizer for the tourism. (Kurtzman, 2005) and cited from (Hinch and Higham, 2004)The passive spectators are associated with business tourism were cooperate events around sports are used to generate money for their business and sport facilities beget polished cooperate services.Were an Active sport tourist is in general associated with holiday tourism were the tourist seeks a specific sport to take part in dapple on holiday or were a number of sports are on offer in a particular resort.Both sets of tourists add great financial benefits to the economy of the country visited, the next section of the essay will focus on these financial and economic benefits towards the 2014 Glasgow games bo th positively and contradictlyFor a host city a major event organised correctly will be economically beneficial, this has not always been the case. Previous major events such as the Olympics film had a past of beingness a financial burden on host cities and organisers. In 1976 the Montreal games lost an astonishing 692 million and the city has middling finished off paying the debts. This led to the birth of cooperate games were private enthronization and sponsorship turned hosting major events into both profitable and viable.The 2014 games will require an investment of 288 million 80% which will paid by the Scottish government and the Glasgow City Council and the final 20% will be acquired through corporate sponsors and investment. (Knight, 2007)The investors will be hoping on a successful games both sporting and economically, to try and insure a return on their investment. finished marketing not erect games but Scotland as a whole the investors can profit. The Glasgow busine ss guide estimates the Games soak up the potential to boost Scotlands international profile by almost 50%. One way to market Scotland is through tourism. Cited from (Purcell)The Glasgow games are held in the eastmost end of Glasgow and this part of the city will go under massive positive feedback to be ready for the Games. Not wholly trespass sporting venues are been put in place, an additional thousand houses are been built around this field of view attracting more people to live and work and invest and contribute to economic regeneration. (Purcell)The investment into Glasgow will be looked upon positively put ontogenesisd tourism can beat both a positive and electro blackball effect on the city and the economy.One positive aspect will be the gain of business tourist coming to the Games. Business tourism is worth almost 1b a year to the Scottish economy. Through increased awareness around the games, Scotland can call forth itself as a world class venue to cook conference s and meetings. As well these tourists can create late businesses in the country or offer existing ones due to the experience, there is alike opportunity to allow Scotland to network and develop new opportunities, which would contribute to an economic return on the games. Cited from (Glasgow 2014 Delivering a indestructible Legacy for Scotland, 2008)Not just foreign business tourists will be targeted as topical anesthetic enterprises will be targeted and fostered by the commonwealth movement. Under get wind Scotlands legacy for 2014 games working with Scottish enterprise, event Scotland and the executive it is stated that local business can capitalise on the games and will make themselves and Scotland wealthier. To develop a mechanism to hold in that Scottish businesses have the greatest possible opportunity to win contracts to supply products and services related to major events and this would therefore create a lasting business and economic legacy for Scotland up to 2014 and beyond. (Glasgow 2014 Delivering a Lasting Legacy for Scotland, 2008) Through this legacy these business can grow and prosper in a global environment by displaying themselves around this major event.Through the increase of tourists coming to the games, Glasgow must be ready to host and house them. An increase in all types of hotels will be undeniable. Glasgow all ready have many hotels to cater to anyones desire but more will be needed to provide suitable accommodation. New hotels and updated ones are planned, including Glasgows first six star hotel in Argyle Street, the international hotel will cost 125 million and will also have apartments included as well. These hotels can have a positive impact financially for Glasgow and Scotland during and after the games.This will give the opportunity to hold more tourists at one time in the city and have a higher clientele that will spend more money sequence staying. During the commonwealth games the hotels can also be a good base cam p to allow the tourist to go the games but also other attractions around the city or even around Scotland. (Argyle Street Hotel Approved, 2007)A major increase in tourist staying in hotels will have positive aspects on the Scottish economy it also could be a negative impact. This is due to the hotel chains not being Scottish and the profits made by them will go to the country of origin rather than Scotland.The increase of hotels and other redevelopment will lead to an increase in jobs, which can be looked upon positively and negatively, from a positive aspect. The current economic climate of the recession is incr mitigation unemployment and any boost from either extra supply or new facilities employing new staff will be vital to the future of Scotlands economic growth. An initiative of the legacy of 2014 games is to reduce economic inactivity caused by underemployment of the workforce in Glasgow (Glasgow 2014, 2008) This will ensure that the recruitment will be targeted for the loc al population before and during the commonwealth games, this will allow them to be expert in new skills and give the indolent unemployed new found confidence and inspiration to work. Cited from (Glasgow 2014, 2008)Scotland is a host during these games and visitors will expect a professional welcome, recruiting from the unemployed could be deemed of having a negative effect and also increase of jobs in hospitality sector could also have a negative economic impact.Recruiting the unemployed could be a negative impact due to the Colloquialisms used in the Scottish language, especially in Glasgow were it could be said they have their own language of Glaswegian.Visitors will be expecting not only proper English but also formal etiquette will be used, a hotel such as the Hilton train staff to be louvre star as well as their hotels and the new staff will have to live up to these expectations which could lead to jobs intended for the unemployed termination trained foreign staff, as compa nies will look for a multi-cultural employee. Cited from (Careers, 2009) This could lead to the new jobs being offered and taken by overseas workers. Not just from E.U countries but employees from Africa, Asia and the Americas. This could have a number of negative factors, first the inactive unemployed will not be able to sour fulfilled with new skills and sense of being and contribute to the Scottish economy. The wages will be going to foreign worker who could take the money earned back to their own country and have little effect economically while brisk in Scotland.Although major events are judged on the economic return there other factors to be considered such as the socio- cultural impacts the 2014 games and the influx of tourists will have on both on Glasgow and Scotland.There will be many social cultural impacts on both Scotland and the tourist. Considering Scotland and Glasgow, the city will go under mass regeneration. As stated the east-end of Glasgow will go under mass re generation but also other areas of Glasgow. This will have both social and cultural impacts on these areas, socially with better admit and infrastructure could lead to a better way of living. The athlete village, National Indoor Sports Arena and the velodrome will be situated in Dalmarnock, a derelict part of Glasgow associated with crime, poor health and unemployment and new housing will be build in the east-end of Glasgow. Cited from (2014 east end regeneration game, 2007) According to the 2014 games legacy the regeneration will be a transformation of the East End of Glasgow, creating a sustainable, vibrant new community of interests. (Glasgow 2014, 2008) The social make-up of not just of Dalmarnock will change which could be seen both positively and negatively.The positive impacts could be that the regeneration swear outs tackle the social problems around the east-end and which would also encourage tourist to visit the area during and beyond the games. Sport stadia and other co nstructions become tourist attractions and bring into generally urban tourists who not otherwise be there. (Standeven and De Knop, 1999) The velodrome and the National Indoor Sports Arena could have tourists and specific sport tourists being attracted to the east-end to visit these buildings or participate after the games, either returning back to the area or visiting due to the feedback given from tourists returning to their own country. A steady arrival of tourist each year would encourage local business to grow and expand and network with other countries to bring in products and trade, these tourists could become residents of Scotland and become employed in the east-end and contribute socially and culturally to the area.Although regeneration will modify living and facilities of the east-end and Dalmarnock in particularly, it could be seen as a negative impact for the people living in this area currently. The project known the Clyde gateway project is taking ownership of the rege neration and is behind the new housing, to allow the new projects to take place the residents of Dalmarnock will be moved to other parts of the city. This will have a negative social effect on the people as they are being moved from their community and friends and family, for two weeks of games. Although most of the feedback from the community has been positive there has been opposite view expressed. Margaret Jaconelli is one is opposed to the games and the redevelopment living 32 years in Dalmarnock and is the only person living in one of the flats I want to stay in my own house as pertinacious as possible. Margaret also feels a sense of loss, It was actually a cracking wee community. (Forrest, 2009) The resentment comes from the feeling that the redevelopment will not benefit the local people as there are being shifted to another community, so a new one can be put in place. This is delineate in the new housing which only a few will be council owned and be given back to the previo us residents, this could be a form of social cleansing, were the poorer class is moved to make way to a richer group of people. Cited from (Lundy, 2003)This could also lead to a negative effect for tourists were the host could become resentful towards tourists as it could be deemed they were the cause of the social change. (Doxey, 1975 p209 Green book) developed a model called Doxeys Irridex to measure the relationship between tourism growth and community stress. Doxeys model could be applied to Glasgow and the east-end during and after the game. His first stage of the model is Euphoria, which Glasgow will feel before and during the Games, welcoming the tourists to stay and enjoy, the next of Apathy will happen after the games were if tourists return to Glasgow on a regular basis they will be taken for granted and local bossiness will expect the said(prenominal) number of tourists ever year, the third and fourth stages of Annoyance and Antagonism could apply to local people who are opposed to the games and the redevelopment, they could be openly aggressive and unfriendly towards tourists during and after the games. Cited from (Standeven and De Knop, 1999)The increase of tourism will have a social impact on the east-end and Scotland but also culturally, Scotland has a proud and unique culture and it is key that Scotland can show of their culture and heritage to the world during the games. The games legacy plans to ensure that as many Scottish products and services are used in the Games as possible. (Glasgow 2014, 2008) This will give the tourist an idea of the Scottish produce such as food and drink, rather than sampling global brands which are astray available and show the quality of the products and interest them to invest or buy more. To display the arts the Games will work closely with Scottish Arts Council to help showcase our festivals, artists and creative industries, such as computer games and music. (Glasgow 2014, 2008) This will help the Games be a more whole experience for the tourist who can be excited by both the sport and the culture at hand. Cited from (Scottish Arts Council)A tourist culture could as well have a negative effect of Glasgow and Scotland as a whole, as tourist could struggle to understand the Scottish culture and expect a more commercial viable and a homogenized country. This could lead the Scottish culture being diluted and forgotten, to make way for the same shops, food, cars, art etc as any other country leave it with no identity or soul.It could be said homogenization has already happened in Scotland with major chains such as Hilton or Starbucks being both major city and each laid out the same. Cited from (Standeven and De Knop, 1999)The legacy of the 2014 games will look to make Scotland greener, but a surge of tourists can make both positive and negative environmental impacts. The Games venues such as the athletes village will be eco-friendly with standards set to reduce carbon emissions and waste. The venues are set around the Clyde which is the river that runs through Glasgow, the organisers have seen the seen the river as an opportunity to allow commuters and tourists to move around the city with more easy. One project is to permit the Clyde to have a high promote ferry service, from the centre of Glasgow to Dunoon and then to Greenock. Another service which has been run since 2007 is Britains first seaplane airline which a service from the centre of Glasgow to Oban. Cited from (Clydefast Ferries, 2008)These services can be seen both positively and negatively impacting the environment of the Clyde the services will allow more tourists to enter Glasgow daily and stay out with the city entering only when they choose, this can a positive effect on the environment as tourist are using greener and alternative forms of transport rather the car. (Glasgow 2014, 2008)A negative impact will be the impact the services will have on the Clyde itself, the Clyde as already as a variatio n of water sports preformed on it, including rowing and sailing. An increase in tourism and sport tourists could expand these sports which will have a lasting effect of the Clyde. All forms of water sports can have a harmful influence (Standeven and De Knop, 1999) these can include bank vegetation being damaged, fish and birds being troubled, also local residents could have divergence with the increase of sports and the new services due to noise pollution.Transport is major issue in environmental impacts of a tourist and during the Games there will be an increase in activity that will affect the environment. New transport links are being built for 2014, including the completion of the M74 which will join to the M8 motorway atomic number 74 of the Kingston Bridge. A Positive impact of the new road will be opening up opportunities, reducing congestion and investing in easing the commute. (M74 Completion, 2008)Opportunities include a development of Scotlands economy by improving trans port links and creating new jobs. The road is will also help the tourism as it will give greater access to the east of Glasgow were the Games are been held and encourage people to visit this area. Cited from (M74 Completion, 2008)Negative impacts of this road will be the potential environmental damage caused to local residents, in 2003 Green and Socialist MSPs united to oppose plans to complete the M74 motorway. They argued that the road would to reduce traffic and could increase it, health impacts of pollution on children and adults and the money spent did not justify the cause. In Glasgow particularly, where nearly 60% of households dont have access to a car, it is an obscenity that half a billion is going to be spent on a slice of motorway five miles long thats 100m a mile, (Parties unite to fight M74 plans, 2003)The tourist will make a significant impact on Glasgow during and after the games and also the legacy of the games can assist the people of Glasgow and Scotland to becom e healthier and introduce them to sport, the Games will allow Scotland to improve their sport development and help bring home the bacon goals set by the government and the Sportscotland.Sportscotland is the national agency for sport in Scotland, and their mission is to encourage everyone in Scotland to get out and develop their own sporting experience, helping to increase participation and improve effects in Scottish sport. (We are the national agency for sport in Scotland. 2009)To achieve this Sportscotland issued a national strategy for sport, Reaching Higher the two outcomes of Reaching Higher are increasing participation in sport and improving performance. Through the legacy of the Games Sportscotland can help to achieve these two national outcomes, an increase in sport infrastructure throughout Scotland by networking and engaging with national judicature bodies, local authorities and Sportscotland will allow authorities to welcome an increased interest in sports participati on. An increase under-represented groups participating in sports, the games will encourage new groups into sport and facilities will give them chance to take part.New sport development programmes to give young participants the best pathway to success will help Sportscotland to increase participation. Cited from (Glasgow 2014, 2008)To improve Scottish performance on a world stage, the Games can help discover a clear pathway from grass-roots to elite performance in successful sports, which will guide young athletes through each stage and give the correct training needed.Expanding the Scottish Institute of Sport were the top Scottish athletes are trained, will allow more to be trained and therefore an increase in more athletes. The can help to increase medals and overall performance of Scottish athletes at major events, investment into sport will give better training facilities, coaches and equipment. Cited from (Glasgow 2014, 2008)The Games will help Sportscotlands to achieve the outc omes, the Games can also revolutionise Scottish heath, Scotland has one of the worst records of health in Europe with the highest number heart problems and strokes and has the shortest life expectancy. Cited from (Bridgland, 2000) and (Scotland is worst small country, 2007)In 2003 the Physical activity strategy was launched Lets Make Scotland More Active, with their key goal of the strategy is 50% of all adults aged over 16 to achieve 30 minutes of physical activity each day and 80% of all children aged 16 to be achieving over an hour of physical activity each day by 2022. Cited from (Physical activity strategy, 2003)Physical activity can exclude sports and can include running or walking and the Games can be a vehicle to inebriate people to be more physically active. Through correct marketing and information on how people can become more active. The Games will have legacy on the children, obesity among children is a growing health concern in Scotland, the games will give courage to children to try sport and be physically active, also campaigning for a healthier lifestyle including food, alcohol and drug advice. Cited from (Glasgow 2014, 2008)To conclude the essay said it would examine the anticipated impact of sport tourism on the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games. The essay has answered this question by stating a number of potential impacts a tourist can bring to Glasgow and the impact the Games will have on Glasgow. The sections of the essay asked who and what a tourist and sport tourist are and a brief on the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games. This section was answered fully giving a number of academic references to define a tourist, the main section of the essay was to consider the overall impact both positively and negatively of the Games in terms of economically, socio-culturally and environmentally. Using both academic text and physical sources the essay was able to give numerous examples in each section. The final section would consider the overall impact of the games in terms of sport development and health in Scotland, using national strategies this section could be answered completely.

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