Saturday, May 25, 2019

Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease Essay

Dementia is a set of conditions, medically diagnosed, and leading to recognized and measurable behavioral changes in an individual. Dementia of the Alzheimers type is a chronic cognitive disorder that is manifested in impairment of either short-term or long-term memory or even both. It has a slow onset and its etiology is unknown, although many speculate that genetics may play a role as well as the decrease in acetylcholine which is a neurotransmitter that is used to carry electrical impulses from the axon of one cell to the d containrite of another. The number of neurotransmitters have been found in the brain tissue of patients with dementia and Alzheimers. Alzheimers disease accounts for ab by 70% of dementia cases. Over 4 million people argon currently diagnosed as having Alzheimers disease.There is not a specific age of onset although it usually occurs in late adulthood. People are living longer now and for this reason, the number of Alzheimers cases is on the rise. It is a neuro logical disorder of the brain that can cause overwhelming anxiety for both those affected and family members of those affected. In Alzheimers disease, normal brain tissue is replaced by neuritic plaques which basically just take up space. These brain lesions leave inevitably cause death. Various bodily functions begin to be altered depending on the resolve of the brain affected. Usually as the disease progresses, bladder control will be lost as well as the ability to swallow.The brain lesions will often times trigger the onset of seizures. Cognitive symptoms of Alzheimers disease include alteration in language, ability to solve problems, and even the inability to vex appropriate decisions. This may often times be the most difficult symptom for nurses and care providers to deal with legally. In the long run, patients will experience execute memory loss and aphasia. Non-cognitive changes include unexplained movements, urinary and fecal incontinence, aggression, and/or agitation. T here is currently no known therapeutic manipulation that can cylinder block the progression of dementia and Alzheimers disease.In caring for the Alzheimers patient, the staff must remember to refer to the patient by name and not by calling them sweetie or honey. A patient has a right to maintain dignity. If dementia is diagnosed early enough, it is advisable for the patient to designate a decision-maker which will help designate that patients assets. Quality of life in patients with dementiais a big ethical topic that becomes very historic in the late stages of dementia. During late stage dementia, ability to express pain or discomfort may be altered. In these patients verbal references to pain are absent, not because theyre not experiencing any pain but because they may not know how to express the degree of pain that they are experiencing. Because of this, regular cheek of pain medications are often prescribed (Refer to article 1 discomfort protocol). Oftentimes, family members find themselves in a bind between providing care until the very end of life or requesting the cessation of life-sustaining measures (Refer to article 2 euthanasia and assisted felo-de-se).Assessment should include family history, social history, memory (long-term and short-term),behavioral responses such as wandering, suicide risks, appearance, speech, and hallucinations. Oftentimes, a family member is needed to assist with subjective data as the patient may not remember some things. Sometimes, out of frustration, a psyche with Alzheimers will fabricate stories or details. This is believed to be a defense mechanism. They are in denial about having loss of memory.Nursing diagnoses include-altered judgment processes related to dementia.-impaired physical mobility.-alteration in nutrition related to neurological deficits in swallowing.-self care deficit.Goals should include ability to comply with treatment plan and ability to adjoin self-care requirements. Interventions for the Al zheimers patient focus on keeping the patient comfortable, nourished, and hydrated. Oftentimes, a patient will request a priest, rabbi, or minister to visit and cover religious support. In late stage Dementia and Alzheimers disease, comfort is usually one of the primary goals of the care team, since death isinevitable (refer to article 3 music and dementia). It is important to speak to these patients slowly and clearly. Many times they are able understand what is being said when spoken to at a long-play pace.In summary, Alzheimers Disease and Dementia are often secondary diagnoses and because of this, they are often overlooked in the management of care and proper treatment of patients with other diagnoses. Alzheimers Disease does not discriminate. Nobody asks to have Alzheimers so it is important to remember that patients do not always act out the way they want to. Sometimes they just cant help it.

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