Friday, March 29, 2019
Luck Be a Lady: Ciroc Vodka Advertisement
Luck Be a maam Ciroc Vodka AdvertisementLUCK BE A LADY CIROC VODKA ADVERTISIMENTStephen AstwoodLuck Be a lady around e very cuffper directly is citing British inebriant readr Diageos CIROC Ultra-Premium Vodka in their lyrics. The grunge name seems to affirm found an interesting niche, much specific wholey that of the premium liquor market. CIROCs Luck Be a Lady advert, synonymous with the song of the same name made famous by Frank Sinatra, c all tolds upon a all-star cast with public celebrities same belt enterpriser and investor in CIROC Sean P. Diddy Combs, and a assortment of male actors and female models. The men argon elegantly dressed in suits with Combs (2011) first statement redeing the strategy of the endeavour, We sport letd. He urges them to go out and amass millions of dollars, wanting the practice reach a regular habit. Combs (2011) first full statement is, Fellas, we dumbfound arrivedwe asleep(p) win a couple million, break the bank out here, thenc e we gone do it all over again. The ads next scene is them disembar tycoon a private jet in Las Vegas, where thither argon beautiful women to k flat them with actual shots of CIROC. (Jernigan, Ostroff Ross, 2005) says, In modern alcoholic beverage markets, the advertising and promotion of alcohol argon central to the harvest-festival itself. Whereas in earlier eras, alcohol whitethorn select been marketed ground on the quality, purity, and price of the product, now the identity of the brand is paramount (p. 314). This run away strives to tell the story that connects a bearing of highlife and leisure with the product itself. The commercial successfully fills the objective of the formerly mentioned narrative, and encapsulates the ace of attainment one sewer appreciate with having consumed CIROC. However, the represendation of this lifestyle tie ind with a brand can set intimately false consequences when classism and consumption becomes more than the product itself (in th is case CIROC), and more rough trying to keep up with the exemplified charge of life. It is of no surprise that the ad echoes the culture of which Sean P. Diddy Combs is a pioneer that of hip-hop, which today is full of human bodys purporting classism, consumerism and to put in urban vernacular, swag over substance. The campaign pays homage to Sinatra and his contemporaries the stern Pack, with Combs (2011) telling Soul grow cartridge that, The Rat Pack defined the art of celebrating in style. I cannot imagine a Spirit more suit up to(p) for commemorating life with family and title-holders than CIROC a brand that has become synonymous with celebratory occasions.Thorstein Veblen (1979) says that, In company to gain and to hold the esteem of men it is not sufficient only to possess wealthiness of power. The wealth or power moldiness be put in evidence, for esteem is awarded only on evidence (p. 24). As Combs (2011) declargons, We book arrived, it not only takes into accoun t the physical arrival at a private jet facility, but the arrival to a tallness of social posture. The depiction of this status in the ad is realized by dint of the army of luxury products exhibited from the Escalades, private jet, the many some other(a)(prenominal) of beautiful women, and of course Las Vegas, which is emblematic for infamous gambling, one of many facets that endorse pleasure as a main motivation for using it as a location to film. swop ilk this form the basis, or give confirmation to what Veblen (1979) notes as, putting wealth and power in evidence (p. 24). It is contrasted with the fact that they argon unsloped drink a brand of vodka it connects CIROC to these high-end products. Essentially, the ad is ma septg the statement that CIROC is not reasonable one of the many premium liquor brands, it exceeds the others. Particular focus is tending(p) to excessgambling in the casinos. While the characters mention that they be looking at to rake a couple mi llion and break the bank, inferences atomic bite 18 that they atomic number 18 looking to spend a great amount of money. If they argon talking about millions, expandable wealth is no object to them. passim the advertisement we be bombarded with messages that say if you argon not a sh atomic number 18 of the wealthy class, then you are not worthy. Likewise, if you buy CIROC then you forget become retributive as happy, attractive, and successful as the hoi polloi portray in the commercial. It has been merged practice that marketers feedoff the uncertainties of individuals who adopt a classist attitude, seeking to elevate themselves up the economic and social ladder. Debra Goldman (2002) states, youthful-luxury consumers account for a lot of this recession resistance. They are paying premium prices not just for material things (which the old mass market supplied very efficiently) but for ablaze ones comfort, adventure, identity, and esthetic pleasure. The commercial advo cate that anything less(prenominal) than CIROC implys you are lose out on the true emotional significance of successes and all that entails.Sean P. Diddy Combs in an interview with the publication Adweek (2011) was asked, What do you think your brand stands for? Combs (2011) responded by maximI think I stand for aspiration. That effortful work pays off. hoi polloi from all walks of life and all over the globe look atme and know my humble beginnings and know that everythingIve done has been through hard work. People respect me as amarketer and brand builder.As mentioned forwardshand, at that moorage are countless references of CIROC in hip-hop culture today, so much so that the brand epitomizes the approach to the music. Such adoration toward alcohol in music, and specifically in hip-hop is not unique to CIROC. For example, MOET and CRISTAL, justly having been observed as premium brands, cast off been use in the lyrics of Combs protg the late Notorious BIG (1994, 1997) in wh ich he says, The back of the bludgeon sipping Moet is where youll find me and Take their spots, take their keys, make my faculty/Live happily ever after in laughter/Hah, neer seen Cristal pelt faster/And to those bastards, knuckleheads squeeze lead. Miller and Muir (2004) note that, As a pagan and commercial force, hip-hops impact is formidable Coke, Pepsi, Gucci, Bacardi, Burberry, Mercedes, Nike and McDonalds are among the brands that have used hip hop to swap themselves (p. 178). While hip-hop was shaped from much more serious questions than which bottle to pop in the club, it is thanks to endorsements from rappers in various lyrics that certain brands have enjoyed a strong boost in prevalentity.The campaign suggests another cultural perception, and that is how the women are represented. Amico (1998) says that, Advertisements promoted the image of women as childlike and sexy (p. 19). From the onset of the commercial, the women appear in a role that is subservient and playfu l, regarding them as another expression of the luxurious life. The women have one speaking occasion following a trend in advertising that rarely do female characters have a voice in a commercial unless it is for something directly marketed to women. Wood (1999) notes, To be female in the United States is to be attractive, several(predicate)ial, unaggressive, emotional, nurturing, and concerned with mickle and relationships (as cited in Turow McAllister, 2009, p. 193). These concepts are depicted in the commercial and emphasize the historic belief about gender roles that women as the protagonist are foreseeed to serve the male. Although the women are dressed in attire that suggests professionalism, as with many modern women, when they are portrayed this way, women are seen as having to work their certify job when they arrive home. There is less evidence than usual to suggest this advert is working to undercut any progress made for womens rights. However, the message sent to the viewers here is that the men is the one with authoritythe one in control, and the womans role is to serve and just because the women appear successful and having a best time, it is only on the condition that she fluent carries out her principal duties as hostess.The campaign, Luck Be a Lady debuted in mid-December 2011 on two US televisions as headspring as online. Diageo said that the ad leave behind run on various channels that predominantly are sacred to music and sports. The 30 second version of the ad campaign air over the holiday season collection of NBA games however the original arrange is that of a short film. CIROC (2011) has stated in their campaign marketing that, Ciroc has taken the stance that their marketing video needed not backstory, narrative release or a connection to reality. No one in a decision-making capacity on their marketing team thought to ask whether it mattered that, theres no reason for these heap to be hanging out, that zero remotely in teresting goes on immaterial of the visual, and that its just considerate of weird. The reason for this strategy forms the basis of advertising success. The intertextuality with the Rat Pack gives heavy basis to what the commercial is endorsing. Olsen et al. (2003, 1993, 1995, and 2004) notes thatAdvertisements have become an integrated part of popularculture which they parody, and by drawing upon sociallysituated codes, myths, cultural discourse, and home(a)ideologies to develop resonant connections for consumergoods, advertisements both constitute prevailing ideologiesand construct naked as a jaybird mythologies and ideologies for commoditiesthrough these dialogical and intertextual relationships.(as cited in Turow McAllister, 2009, p. 134)The references made to the Rat Pack are reflect because the target market is already familiar with them and what they symbolize as CIROC is used as a form of product placement. It isnt a exigent use of it, but still opens links that ar e already wasted by the audiences knowledge.Just as actors, musicians, artist and the like come to personify their brand, Sean P. Diddy Combs has come to personify CIROC. There are very few places and very few songs nowadays that dont associate the two. In Luck Be a Lady a classification of roles become closely tied to the message of luxury and success. The image of the Rat Pack harmonize to Combs was considered because it sought to emphasize what Strasser (2009) says that, through and through advertising, leisure becomes a goal of modern living, not just an attribute used to sell a product (as cited in Turow McAllister, 2009, p. 25). Having the resources to live life the way the campaign projects, is a desire of most western consumers. The commercials statement is made more striking knowing the success Combs has attained personally that this could actually be a day in the life of Sean P. Diddy Combs. The match-up hypothesis is expound by public treasury Busler (2013) as, The differential impact that different types of endorsers, often celebrities, have on the endorsed brand (p. 2). Diageo notes the argument has had significant growth since they affiliated Sean Diddy Combs. merchandising and Research Company Symphony IRI says that, Sales (of CIROC) jumped 41% to $6.8 million in the year ended Oct. 3 2007. Initial brand focus before Combs tended to focus on the grape according to MediaCom, CIROCs media mode until January 2011. When shelter Carat (2011) took over responsibilities they said, That whole grape story just didnt work, because nobody really cared. It didnt carry around enough cachet. Through the success of advertising campaign Lady Be Luck, CIROC is now positioned as a brand amongst the most successful in the world with The liquor origin (2012) reporting that, The sale of 1.5m cases in 2011 has helped Ciroc to become the second largest ultra-premium vodka in the US. Combs statement to Andrew Hampp (2007) in Ad Age, summed up his relevance to the brand and the brands success in the market. He said, Ive branded myself as the king of celebration, and thats what this alliance is all about.ReferencesAmico, E.B. (Ed.) (1998). Readers Guide to Womens Studies. Chicago, IL Fitzroy Dearborn.Combs, S. (2001). Luck Be a Lady (Starring Diddy, Eva Pigford More). Retrieved from http//www.youtube.com/watch?v=iVMjRJJrQqY.Frith, K., Ping, S., Cheng, H. (2009). The Construction of Beauty A Cultural Analysis ofWomens Magazine Advertising. In J. Turow M.P. McAllister (Eds.), The Advertisingand Consumer Culture Reader (p. 193). New York, NY Routledge.Goldman, D. (2002). ADWEEK Consumer Republic. Retrieved fromhttp//www.adweek.com/news/consumer-republic-59788.Goldman, H. (2011). The sway Front Deconstructing Diddys Latest Ciroc Branded Film,Ciroc Luck Be a Lady. Retrieved from http//therealfront.tumblr.com/post/15053011045.Hampp, A. (2007) AdvertisingAge Hes Gone by Puffy, Diddy and Now Brand Manager.Retrived from http//adage.com/ ph rase/news/puffy-diddy-brand- theater director/121489/.Jernigan, D., Ostroff., Ross, C. (2005). Alcohol Advertising and Youth A MeasuredApproach. diary of Public Health Policy, 26, 312-325. inside10.1057/palgrave.jphp.3200038 .Kelly, A., Lawlor K., ODonohoe, S. (2009). Encoding Advertisements The Creative Perspective. In J. Turow M.P. McAllister (Eds.), The Advertising and Consumer Culture Reader (p. 134). New York, NY Routledge.Levine, D.M. (2011). ADWEEK Fast Chat Sean Diddy Combs The rap mogul on the Rat Pack, his brand and building a wear mousetrap. Retrieved from http//www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/fast-chat-sean-diddy-combs-137229.Miller, J. Muir. (2004). The pipeline of Brands. Hoboken, NJ Wiley.Stresser, S. (2009). The Alien Past Consumer Culture in Historical Perspective. In J. Turow M.P. McAllister (Eds.), The Advertising and Consumer Culture Reader (p. 25). New York, NY Routledge.The Spirits line of merchandise Vodka-Brand Champions 2012. (2012). Retriev ed from http//www.thespirits occupation.com/2012/07/vodka-brand-champions-2012/.Till, B.D., Busler, M. (2002). The Match-Up Hypothesis Physical Attractiveness, Expertise, and the role of Fit on Brand Attitude, Purchase Intent and Brand Beliefs. Journal of Advertising, 29 (3), 1-13. doi10.1080/00913367.2000.10673613.Toney. (2011). Soul Culture Diddys Luck Be a Lady Commercial. Retrieved from http//www.soulculture.co.uk/culture-2/film-tv/diddys-luck-be-a-lady-ciroc-commercial-extended-version-video/.Veblen, T. (1979). The Theory of the Leisure Class. New York, NY Penguin Books.Wallace, C. (1994). Big Poppa. On Ready to endure CD. New York, New York Universal Music Group.Wallace, C. (1997). Youre Nobody Till Somebody Kills You. On Life After Death CD. New York, New York Universal Music Group.Types of transaction locomotion An overviewTypes of dividing line break An overviewTypes of telephone circuit break motive powerling on business can take many forms. Individuals whitethorn b e be activeling to meetings, to exhibitions to make gross r level(p)ue calls to customers.There are alike a lot of occasions when high amount of assorts of people travel individually, or together, to take part in a concourse or corporate. Companies that cram business travel are operating in a different market to those who organise conferences and events and are often different companies. However, overlap does occur, for example Kuoni is a well known tour operator, heretofore has an arm of its company which specialises in event management.Incentive TravelThe inducement travel is offered by the employer(company) to the employee which is like a entertainment gift for them as they are travelling for free. This will make the employee very happy as they can rest at the same time as well as having fun which overall it effects the work rate of the employee when they are back as it will make them much more actuate to work harder in the future as they whitethorn gain another reward.W hat effect fillip travel gives to the employeeFacilitating communication and net incomeing opportunities, especially in older managementcheering the companys sociallyHaving a better company dedicationCreating eagerness for upcoming company periodStrengthening the relationship among the employee and the companyAdvantages for employeesEvery employee will feel very special and be satisfied in their job as the company has given them an wondrous opportunity to go for an great holiday which they have gain the award. It automatically changes the employees feelings in work by making them feel successful and persuasion they are the best in that work place because they were rewarded an incentive travel. That whitethorn also mean they had one of the best performance in the sales team for that business because they were rewarded as not many people get it on this trip because its not often many people creation offered an incentive travel by their company.Exhibitions and tidy sum fairsTh ere are exhibitions and throw fairs for just about every type of product. Business people attend trade fairs to keep up-to-date on the latest development in their sedulousness which shows they are competing with each other as the find suppliers for products and function and to network with colleagues.There are two aspects of the organisation of fairs and exhibitions. Firstly, there are companies who organise the exhibitions and sell stands to exhibitors. An example is Reed Exhibitions. They have a division, Red Travel Exhibitions, who focus on travel events. Lastly, there are many of business to be gained in organising travel to exhibitions and allowance for attendees.Conferences and meetingsThe meetings perseverance Association (MIA) is the largest association for meetings industry for the UK and Ireland, providing bet on for venues and suppliers in the meetings environment. A company who wants to organise a large meeting, or conference, could approach the MIA to find out abo ut companies who can make the arrangements for them.Corporate eventsCorporate events and hospitality is a specialist industry within travel and touristry that focuses on providing events, hospitality and entertainment to business clients. It can be know as a an incentive to an consumer because they have place a business with a different employer or to have a bun in the oven businesses that may have not yet customers to an arrangement with the business. It is also seen as a good way for a company to network and make new business contacts. Corporate events take many forms from lavish events at Wimbledon or the Henley Regatta to the owner of a business inviting his or her bank manager for a meal in a topical anaesthetic restaurant. umpteen corporate hospitality functions are centred on sports events, much(prenominal) as golf championships, cricket, tennis, rugby football and football matches. There are many specialist companies that handle all the arrangements for corporate event s, from displace our invitations and meet and greet go to providing catering and entertainment.Business AgenciesThis section is the role of business travel divisors and the different types of agents operating in the industry.RoleBusiness travel is concerned with providing products and go for business people travelling to meetings, attending conferences and conventions, and taking part in trade fairs and exhibitions. It also includes incentive travel, where holidays, short breaks and other travel services are offered to members of round as an incentive to reach work targets.big business travel agencies are regularly performing on behalf of two parties when they take on their job. They are providing help needed by their customer, referred to as the consumer, on whose behalf they are making the travel schedules. They are also an agent for the corporation that is proviso the product. These companies are recognized as principals and comprise airlines, hotels and car hire companies. Business travel is an increasingly important industry, since it is often high value tourism, earning hoteliers, caterers, transport providers, travel agents and a host of other companies signicant income. Business travel is considered a high value industry becauseClients often have to travel at short notice, meaning that they are not able to take advantage of discounted advance purchase ratesBusiness people often use high quality accommodationBusiness travel invariably includes an element of entertaining business clientsTravel is often in upgraded services, e.g. business class or rst class.Business travel agencies can be divided into ve distinct types1. Independent agencies2. National agencies3. Global agencies4. Implant5. E-agent. individually type has its own particular characteristics and products.Independent agenciesAcross the UK, there are many commutative travel agents that offer business travel arrangements. They are not part of a national twine and are often managed by the owner and a small team of staff. They may be companies that deal exclusively with business travellers, but are more probably to deal with both leisure and business clients. Unlike national agents (see below), independent travel agents are free to offer their business clients travel services from a wide range of suppliers. Independent business travel agents trade on their ability to offer their clients a very personal service, relying on word-of-mouth recommendation from satisfied customers for extra business. As well as macrocosmness members of ABTA The Travel Association, many independent business agents join consortia much(prenominal) as Advantage Travel or World choice in order to benefit from supplier discounts, make useful business contacts and to have their voices heard.National AgenciesThese are UK- ground companies that are part of a national chain of travel agencies, such as Thomas Cook, Co-op Travelcare and Thomson. These agencies deal to begin with with holidays an d other leisure travel products, but can meet the demand of business travellers as well. Agencies that are located in parts of the sylvan with high concentrations of companies and a large business community often generate a sizeable proportion of their turnover from business clients. Organisations of all sizes and in all sectors of the frugality often need their staff to travel on business. Sole traders, members of partnerships, company directors, public sector staff, junior and senior managers, all travel from time to time on business. This could be in their local area, elsewhere in the UK, to countries in continental Europe or notwithstanding afield.ImplantsImplants are agents operating within a business exposit, so that they are on hand to look after travel requirements as needed. The agent may often work alone and is employed by a business travel agency, not by the company in whose premises they are based.E-agentsAs in leisure travel, there is an expanding demand for online business travel services. Some of them may be familiar with the website offering travel services, Expedia. Expedia claims that is corporate travel business, launched in 2002, is the fifth largest by turnover worldwide.Products and servicesBusiness travel agents may be dealing with small companies sending individuals on business trips to corporate clients who want all of their business travel managed.Basic services will always includeAccommodation bookings leakage bookings either scheduled or low-cost, business, first or even economyTransferCars hire or rail ticketsAncillary sales, such as car parking or insurance.The agency will book accommodation for a customer and that is to find where they will stay, arrange travel such as flight bookings on specific dates, transfers to the hotel etc. Ancillary services such as insurance and parking.Management of a customers travel expendituresThis means analysing data so that a corporation knows exactly what is macrocosm spent on business tra vel and where. The travel management company manage the data and make it available to the customer 24-hours a day in a spreadsheet or database.Negotiation with suppliersThe agent negotiates monetary value on the customers behalf with airlines, care hire companies and hotels for accommodation which this is for the agency to find the best deals for their consumers.Products and services provided by suppliersAll hotels and airlines want to solicit in to the lucrative business travel market and constantly influence out new products and services to entice business travellers.Hotels offer Wi-Fi and business centres as a matter. Business customers may read executive rooms. in time cheaper hotels, such as the premier Inn chain, offer wireless profits and meeting rooms which is what the business customers expects to have.Is Blood Thicker Than piddle?Is Blood Thicker Than Water?Literature Review DraftIs Blood is Thicker than Water?Blood is thicker than water, this dialect expresses the idea that family relationships are stronger and more durable than familiarity ties. This idea is reinforce through customs, traditions, and laws that give familial relationships prerogative over non-familial ties and determine who may be defined as family (Muraco, 2006). In fact this theme is so pervasive in our society that, at times, it goes unrecognized for example should a childs parents pass away all eyes look to the next of kin or juxtaposed living relative. It is the same if there was a collection of debts that need to be paid. In the case of hospitalization in an intense care unit, often the rule is the admittance of immediate family only. In fact, according to the Uniform Probate Code of the United States section 2-103 in the event that one dies without a will, both children and the whole of their estate go to their family (source). Many find it intriguing that it is the conventional assumption within our society that in a time of crisis, it is the presence of those we are most concerned about in our lives our family- that is of most importance. The idea that familial relationships mean more than all other types of relationships, dates back almost 600 years to 1412 (source). The fact that this idea is still prevalent today, so many centuries later, leads the author to believe that there must be something fundamentally, or qualitatively different about the relationships we have with family (mother, father, cognate), and those we have with friends. If so, what is it? The aim of this paper examines these issues and as a result suggests further look into that needs to be done.networks of family support tend to be denser than friendship networks (Wellman Wortley, 1989), creating a context in which responsibilities toward family members develop (Finch Mason, 1993) responsibility is further strengthened by norms within our (Himes Reidy, 2000 Stein et al., 1998). On one hand, family relationships are continued even if there is a degree of animosity a nd conflict (Allan, 1996). friendship, on the other hand, can be seen as an independent relationship that tends to be based strongly on a sense of reciprocity (Buunk Prins, 1998). We therefore expect sibling relationships to be less strongly influenced than friendships by these mechanisms.With marriage being less stable, and with the number of children falling, peer relationships potentially become increasingly important. Friendship offers a way of inventing and re-inventing the self in an authentic way throughout ones life. As such it is particularly important to women whose idea of themselves is typically root in social relationships. (OConnor 1999 118)By virtue of growing up in the same family, siblings know each other intimately and develop a body of shared knowledge that may facilitate a honey oil basis for social pinch. In 2005 Schaf, Schulman and Spitz found that siblings provide emotional support for each other, resulting in reduced anxiety that can come with being an o utcast with peers. The sibling relationship ahs been shown to be increasingly valuable being as it has been found associated with lower loneliness and depression and with higher conceit and overall life satisfaction. Also, sibling support has been found to compensate when there is an absence of not only parental support but friendship support aswell (Anderson, 2005)..In a study about social instinct and interpersonal relationships Clarke and Dunn found that the differences in the relationship between siblings and friends are based first on the fact that there is a choice involved. Children choose their friends however they do not choose their siblings and are typically face up with living with them. They also found that sibling relationships can have attributes like hostility and ambivalence which are rarely found in friendships (2005).Among the differences between these relationships are the expectations involved. In familial relationships the emphasis is not on equality, balanc e, and reciprocity as is the case in friendships (Mills, Clark, Ford, Johnson, 2004). However the sibling relationship, not unalike the friend relationship requires maintenance by regular positive interaction, its does not remain ready at all times to be unrestrained whenever the need arises (Voorspstal, 2007). The general everyday understanding of what family entails is different from everyday understanding of what friendship entails. This does not mean that family and friend relationships have no commonality, nor does it mean that people never regard friends as family or family as friends. It does, however, suggest that different forms of unity and commitment usually differentiate the two sets of relationships specifically, the demands that family and friends for the most part view as legitimate to expect of each other are usually patterned differently, including the consequent effect on the emotional, practical, and material resources that they are prepared to give (Ueno Adam s, 2006). In 2005 a study on the sibling relationship in emerging adulthood was conducted which included interviews as part of the method. One participant gave voice to what is a common cultural belief, he wrote, I dont like my siblingsthey dont like me. If we had a choice wed never see each other again. But a family is a group of people youre stuck with for life whether you like it or not.(Leh Ruppe, 2005). Other participants reported relying on their siblings for immediate help and for care in cases of sickness. Additionally, from the qualitative responses obtained, an overwhelming number of responses contained positive comments about sibling relationships.The shift from having a non-family closest friend to having a family member as closest friend is more apparent to occur amongst women, older people, lower class and, interestingly, both by acquire married or by being widow(ed). That these changes in marital status lead to a shift towards a family member as closest friend is a n important finding. It is well established in the literature that those who are newly separated or divorced are more presumable to look to non-family members as their closest friend.This is often to avoid the feeling of being judged by family specifically parents or siblings who may have developed a good relationship with their former spouse. In the case of the death of the partner, family members are more likely to provide sympathetic support and so it is less likely that the grieving person would be made to feel judged. In the longer term, however, those who remain widowed are likely to move on from having a relative as their closest friend to having someone outside the family as their closest friend.Importantly, at various phases within the lifespan, the particular morphologic circumstances of peoples lives may result in both a greater reliance on friends and a reduced involvement with family (Pahl Pevalin, 2005). For example, for some four-year-old adults who are establishi ng their independence from their family but not (yet) started their own, that is, involved in a committed partnerships or a parental phase of life, friends may be the main component of their emotional and practical support networks (Heath Cleaver, 2003). At this time, they may have relatively little involvement with their family relationships. Without necessarily rejecting these ties, their choice is to place more emphasis on friendships with others who may be in a similar situation like unto themselves (Allen, 2008).